31 - Can Changing When You Eat Encourage Weight Loss?

Intermittent fasting is the idea that we can selectively use fasting as a tool for health. In addition to potentially being a more effective approach to weight control, it may also protect against chronic degenerative diseases such as cancer. I decided to look into the evidence myself and here's what I learned.

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Article Version

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Related Podcast Episodes:

12 - What is the Healthiest Way to Eat?

13 - Which Foods Are the Highest in Nutritional Value?

11 - How to Get a Great Night's Sleep Every Night

 

Studies I Quoted in This Episode:

Ruth E. Patterson and Dorothy D. Sears, "Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting," The Annual Review of Nutrition, 2017, http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064634

Longo VD and Mattson MP, "Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications," Cell Metabolism, 2014, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3946160/#

 

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Episode Transcript

[00:00:00] Intro Sequence

[00:03:16] Hello everyone and welcome to another edition of the Aspire Healthy Living podcast. I'm your host John Oden on a gorgeous December day. The weather has not been entirely cooperative with us. We're having the first snow storm that we've had since I moved here a year and a half ago maybe two years ago.

[00:03:39] Let me give you a quick pan here.

[00:03:43] It's coming down pretty heavily.

[00:03:47] But since since we so rarely get a snowstorm and since you know it's very pretty I thought I would go ahead and start the broadcast while I'm actually walking to the filming locations so hopefully we'll get to a stopping point.

[00:04:03] But I wanted to make sure to go ahead and capture the snow and try and get some some of this. It seemed like good timing so I wanted to go ahead and make sure I wanted to go ahead and make sure to capture the capture the weather so I'm going to be a little bit distracted while we're walking to the filming location.

[00:04:23] It's less than a mile maybe half a mile so this will just be at the beginning during the during the discussion part but I can go ahead and give you the update with what's been going on with the spire while we walk. I may get a little winded doing this walk and talk but that's OK. OK. So we've made really good progress since last week. We've launched a online magazine. I wanted to have a wave for people who are only interested in the articles to participate. And so there's a social media platform called medium which I believe is very up and coming and it's basically a writing oriented social media platform I think. I think I had mentioned it in a previous episode. But anyway we established our own medium publication and I linked to that in the show notes. But it's called Healthy Mind Body World. And of course those are the three main topic areas we cover here at Aspire and I'm going to try and get better at rotating through them because when I was going through. Kind of the existing articles and we have a bunch of articles already said the magazine was able to be filled out relatively quickly. Sorry getting a little bit winded here. Basically what I noticed is we have a lot of stuff on healthy mind. Not that much stuff on healthy body and then a pretty good amount of stuff on healthy world. So I want to do a few episodes where we emphasize healthy body take on around rounded out which would mostly be like fitness and nutrition and sleep. So we've definitely gotten into sleep.

[00:06:09] But today we're going to be talking about intermittent fasting and I'll get to that in a second. But it's very much a body related topic. But I wanted to go ahead and finish the update so related to med. our magazine on medium which is again called Healthy Mind Body World. You can go on to medium and follow us and that will give you that is what I like about medium is it has a very minimalist look and feel which you personally appeals to me from a design perspective. But the reason why I wanted to get it set up is well twofold. First of all just as a quick aside. You know I had a difference of opinion with as some of you may remember with environment magazine where what they did was they published my article and then the editor published a scathing response piece and then I I. I published her response to his response which was like the most successful article we've ever had. So like I was pleased that he helped prompt you know a good response in terms of the article. But I guess he got his feelings hurt because he delisted me as a writer in their publication and then published the articles and then blocked me on medium so I can't see anything. Now I did send him an apology email and his other editor just in the sense of like if if what I wrote came off as confrontational you know I didn't want to do that.

[00:07:38] But the bottom line is environment magazine is like the top magazine in the environmental category on medium and they refused to publish my article so all they have left me as an option is to establish my own publication that covers the environment and that is the healthy world aspect. So all of this is kind of a roundabout way of saying the reason why I like having the medium publication is because other writers i.e. you guys are you all. If you're on medium you can become writers for our magazine. And so your articles. And then those can potentially be included in the online magazine and then maybe some of them on the actual podcast. We'll have to see. You know as particular examples materialize.

[00:08:27] So basically it's going to facilitate contributions from other writers. So that's that's that's why I wanted to have it set up and we already have 350 followers so we're off to a really good really healthy start. The next thing as far as update is. Last time I mentioned splitting the podcast into multiple podcasts and then maybe multiple youtube channels I sat with that and I ultimately completely changed my mind. We're going to keep it to one podcast. We're going to keep it to one video chain on YouTube. And I'm just going to try and do a better job about rotating through the content so I've got a tentative schedule that I'm going to start publishing based on I don't necessarily want to lay out the whole schedule just in case that adjusts but the simple version is one podcast per week which I'm targeting Saturday mornings for the main podcast and then Sunday evening or Sunday afternoon publishing a sleep story each week. And I'm hoping to publish. And then of course on the main podcast I'm going to have an article that is associated with the podcast so that each topic area we cover. Will be an article a video and an audio option.

[00:09:47] So that people can come and go with whatever is best for them. So that is. That's one thing I had been feeling like oh I need to pump out more content because when you read online people say like oh you need to be producing content all the time but then I realized hey if my topic is people improving their lives people you know based on the small steps method.

[00:10:12] It's unreasonable to bring up more than one change per week and even one change per week is probably unrealistic assuming people implement every single idea we had here. So I noticed this when I was speaking with one of our patrons she very much tries to not just keep up with the podcast but ponder them and apply them to her life. And I noticed that she's she's always a little bit behind which is fine because people are busy in the real world. But it made me feel like oh I'm stressing myself out for no reason. It's more about you know getting on a consistent schedule so that I'm bringing you value every single week and it's like we talked about last week when we're talking about routine getting into a good routine is really really helpful for me.

[00:10:58] So that's what I'm going to do. That's what I'm going to try and do.

[00:11:03] OK so that's that. Let's see what we're touching on routine. I did want to just whoops hit a tree there. I did want to discuss a comment that we got from one of our readers slash listeners named Alan. The last two podcast episodes as you will remember were basically talking about routine with the first one talking about small changes in the second one related to basically changing activities in your routine together in something that we called Pirate maps. And I think when I was talking about routine I talked about it and it's easy to do this when you're talking about routine. But I believe always talking about it in an overly regimented fashion. And Allen had made some comments about his routine now that he's retired from kind of his professional career because he's because he's been retired from I think two careers he said and how his routines are more more in tune with the natural cycles. And while that's not realistic for all of us I do think it's something that is helpful in terms of you know aspiring to live our lives in tune with the natural cycles. I believe that's what's healthy and we're really going to get into that when we start talking about today's topic which I I think I've mentioned once but didn't really get into which is intermittent fasting time restricted eating and all the different the different weight loss techniques and nutrition techniques related to fasting or going with slightly less food. So it's a very interesting topic. We'll get into that in a second.

[00:12:50] But I wanted to read Alan's comment because I thought it was really inspirational how Alan tries to time his life to the natural cycles and I just thought it was very well put how he put it together.

[00:13:02] So let me just flip a page and read that and this is this is in response to last week's article which he calls the productive routines article. This is me quoting Alan now. It got me thinking about alternatives to strict routines. When I retired I got two timepieces a clock from the Board of Education a watch from the union I guess of those two retirements from the same job. I said quietly to teachers nearby. Now that I don't care what time it is anymore I did think it was funny that you know given him a watch exactly when he doesn't need a watch anymore. But that's irony for you. A teacher's every minute is carefully planned. The clock dictates. But I learned the value of planning my routine is minute and hour free now and it is greatly favorable to me. My tests are more tuned to the movements of the sun and the moon and the turning of seasons. I will never be organizing my emails when the beauty of a sunset can renew me. I make sure that I make ordered room for what I need and what to do in a rhythm compatible to my age health and goals and if the routine gets thrown off I cannot stress I stop and like my guess I recalculate and go on my merry way because when I force it it does not happen to my satisfaction. There is there is a time to walk a time to read a time to laugh a time to make progress on the projects I love and to fulfill commitments I've made.

[00:14:36] And I never and never had time to feel guilty about not getting things done. There's a huge full moon out tonight. I'm taking advantage of how good it makes me feel to write to people I enjoy communicating with.

[00:14:48] So I just asked him if I could share those comments just because I thought they were. I thought they were very inspirational. I thought that they were a good example of somebody who has their priorities in order and who has over time arranged their life in such a way that their that the that their priorities have been maximized and you know is basically living a good life. I mean I don't I don't know everything about what's going on with him but I thought that those words were very inspirational. Okay so thank you for those comments Alan. Okay so as I mentioned today's topic is going to be about fasting and as I like to say this is an audience driven show. If you say hey I want to learn more about this or that then we're going to we're going to dive in deeper and explore those topics so intermittent fasting came up for a few reasons. I had tried it myself. And I should probably mention my experience my experience which I mentioned in the health episode that we will link to are the the what is the optimal way to eat. Episode we will link to in the show notes. But anyway I tried intermittent fasting. I want to say I tried nine hours of eating and the rest of the time was fasting and I didn't notice improvements in mental clarity during that time so I haven't gotten back to doing it but it is one of these things where I've personally thought about going back to do it and doing it. The reason why I have had some reservations about me going back on it is because.

[00:16:26] As those of you are going to be aware who have been watching the video version of this podcast I am a very very thin person. I have a highly abnormal body type which is that. And it's called an ecto more body type but I'm basically so thin that I'm always trying to gain weight rather than lose weight and losing weight would be like worrisome and problematic for me. So I like the idea of intermittent fasting as far as or I should say time restricted eating or feeding and will get into exactly what these technical differences are. But. That's why I've had some initial positive experiences but I'm concerned about being able to do it without losing weights. That's why I haven't hopped back on the train yet although I have learned some interesting things as a result of this research that I'm definitely going to apply in my life.

[00:17:20] But the reason why I'm saying this is audience driven is because out of all the videos that I've posted on YouTube and I've posted like 400 videos on YouTube out of all the videos that I've posted on YouTube the one about intermittent fasting has has the most views but I think it's by far the most views. So I thought that oh this is interesting so there seems to be a particular interest in intermittent fasting. And so I thought Okay great let's just do a whole episode on that. Also we have a listener and I'm sorry I didn't jot down his name before the program I have to go back and look. But he commented on the Facebook the Facebook discussion group about how intermittent fasting was working for him and he posted a before and after picture and he was having excellent progress in terms of weight loss. So he was on a pretty strict. Time restricted eating which I think was he'll was only eating for six hours a day. So I think that that's more extreme than most people are going to want to do. But I still thought it was interesting and he was having such a positive experience with it it made me think like oh maybe we should explore this a little bit further. OK. Give me a moment to just set up. We have arrived at the location.

[00:18:47] And I would stop. But we're just going to. We're just going to move forward here. He's trying get it. Nice to see you.

[00:19:26] OK said the lighting really is not fantastic but we are getting a nice view of the snow so I think that the the does so pretty much worked for what I was trying to accomplish which was to have a nice background during during this presentation. So thank you for bearing with me during the walk portion in the sense that I know that was a little bit a little bit bumpy but we're going to go ahead. We're going to go ahead and continue. So anyway the point is the intermittent fasting was the most popular video we've ever posted online. And by the way we've redone our YouTube channel so I should link to that in the show notes as well. If you haven't checked out our youtube channel it's actually pretty useful because what we do is we take every full episode of the podcast and then we chop it into like three to five minute videos. So it's easier to if you wonder like a review a particular part of the podcast you missed you can get to that very easily on the website or on our youtube page or it's helpful because we have playlists related to individual topics some topics we've actually covered on multiple episodes and will we will include like just the videos that are talking about those topics and cut out the beginning part where we're talking about what's going on with this fire. So you might want to check that out.

[00:20:34] But anyway it was the most commonly viewed video on YouTube and we had this audience member who was having such a good impression with it with his experiences.

[00:20:44] And I had had good experiences with it. So it just seemed like one of these things like hey and also I had wanted to cover more subjects related to healthy body. So it's like OK all of this came together in sort of I felt like now was the right time to examine intermittent fasting. Also has having another conversation with the different reader related to scientific vigor and how she felt like a lot of things going around on the Internet right now we're sort of anti science. So I'm not getting into that topic right now but I am saying like today's topic we'll be delving into the scientific literature related to fasting and actually what I discovered was pretty interesting which is like the simple version is like intermittent fasting and these different techniques some of them talk about what the different options are in terms of fasting. But these techniques are definitely effective at helping people lose weight. That's been that's pretty much. I'm not going to be say I'm not going to say that it's been scientifically proven but it's been highly suggested by the existing studies that that's going to be productive and they're promising results relating to chronic diseases like Alzheimer's and Alzheimer's and things like that. I will say I was surprised at. How initial the research is in other words. There were studies they were positive but there were only like four studies on human subjects and they were like studies of 20 people you know type of thing.

[00:22:13] It's like I don't understand why a lot more money isn't going into this research because it's like well this is how to maintain optimal nutrition especially weight loss for obese people is. Is just something that people are very very very interested in. So I don't understand why more research isn't going into it. I will say part of it is based on the fact that you have to basically start with rats and then you sort of work your way up to human beings and so they've done they've done those sort of you know animal studies. I will say the thing that I've noticed in doing this doing this reading with rats related to the studies in rats is that rats have an opposite cycle as humans so rats are like awake at night and eating at night and asleep during the day. And humans are awake and eating during the day and they sleep at night. We'll get into that a little bit further on down in the episode but it is worth noting like yeah how useful is a rat study going to be when rats do not have the thing eating habits as a human being. And actually in general there's. There's issues with using rats and studies to begin with because it's like rats are not that similar to human beings but we'll get we'll get that in in a different. We probably won't come back to that actually so that's not really what has lead that will be. But let's go back to the main topic which is fasting OK so fasting has been around for a long time because it is also used in there's a number of religious fasting both Christian and Christianity and Judaism have like fasting around particular religious holidays.

[00:23:48] And then of course in Islam I'm not sure if it's just the men or if it's everybody who's Islamic but there's during the month of Ramadan what they do is they fast during the day and then they eat at night. And so they typically eat a big meal. I'm not sure what the order is on the big meal small meal but basically there's one meal right after sundown and there's one meal right before sun up and then there's a faster in the day. So there's actually a long history of time restricted eating although I will say it is my tentative conclusion from looking at the evidence that the healthiest way to implement time restricted eating would be to have the eating period during the day not at night because that basically mimics the natural cycles and we'll get into that we'll get into that here in a minute. But at the top I just wanted to be clear on kind of like the words that we're using and what applies to what because there's a lot of like when you get into the science there's there's a lot of different labels like. There's a lot of different things that quote unquote intermittent fasting which is basically fasting not all the time because of course if you fasted all the time you would die from lack of nutrition. There's a lot of different things that count as it intermittent fasting and when I first started doing this research what I learned is like. People say intermittent fasting but they mean different things by intermittent fasting. So at the very top Intiman fasting is in contrast to the other kind of traditional dietary approach which is called calorie restriction.

[00:25:25] Or caloric restriction and so that is basically what you what when when people think of the word diet what they're thinking of typically is caloric restriction. So it's like if you were going to eat normally 100 percent of the food that you were going to eat then go ahead and just always only eat 80 percent of what you were going to eat before. So it's just like eat less and then you'll get like the most simple kind of diet you could possibly have. Simple in terms of how to lay out the rules for what to follow not necessarily simple in terms of being able to follow it because. As you have probably found out if you've ever tried a traditional caloric restriction diet which is just eat less all the time. They're hard to follow because then you feel like you're starving all the time and then you're hungry or cranky. You're not having a pleasant time and then eventually like you or your willpower falls apart. Or even if it works for a while then you sort of have this rebound after you go off the diet. So that's traditional caloric restriction and then in comparison to that we're talking about intermittent fasting and so the idea of intermittent fasting is instead of trying to control what you eat you're going to control when you eat. And then of course if you're not eating if there are times when you're not allowed to eat theoretically you're going to end up. And scientifically it has been shown that you're going to end up eating less. On the whole. So like the two. So that's intermittent fasting versus traditional calorie restriction. And of course intermittent fasting.

[00:26:59] They have they have found and where did they get into. We're going to get kind of deep into the scientific literature in this episode but they have found that that's easier to follow psychologically because it's like. I'm not sure if I finished explaining what it is so instead instead of saying I'm going to control the total amount of food that I can eat you're saying I'm going to control when I can eat. And during the times I can eat I can just do whatever the hell I want. So as you can imagine that's much easier psychologically to follow because you imagine like somebody who's not used to eating well and like one day they they eat normally and that includes like ice cream and lollipops and like hamburgers and then the next day like they can still eat their ice cream and lollipops and hamburgers they just have to. They just have to do it within the designated timeframe. So I think that was a little confusing because I forgot to get into what the two main categories are related to. Intermittent Fasting. So again intermittent fasting is. Determining when you're allowed to eat not what you're allowed to eat. But of course there are different approaches to determining when you're allowed to eat. And the main two are called alternative day fasting which is also known as periodic fasting and time restricted feeding. So this the air or time restricted eating it's also called. So this episode is primarily going to focus on time restricted eating because I think that's actually. From my analysis that seems to be the more effective approach. But there is this alternative approach.

[00:28:29] There's this other category inside of intermittent fasting called periodic fasting or alternative day fasting and what that is is alternative day fasting. Basically there's two main versions. Alternative day fasting would be like OK I can just eat whatever I want today and then the next day is a fast day and then the day after that you just eat whatever you want and then the next day after that is a fast day. So you are I'll turn your alternating between a fast day and an eating day. Now as you can imagine people are not able to follow that diet because like going for an entire day without eating is like very uncomfortable psychologically and physiologically it's uncomfortable. So what they found is like alternative day diet. Nobody followed the alternative diets and now when people say the alternative diet what they really mean is like one day you can eat whatever you want. And then the next day on the quote unquote fast day instead of eating nothing you can only twenty five percent of the total. Of what you would need on a normal day. So that's normally what people mean when they say alternative day fasting. There's another. Now that's assuming like a period of one where you're fasting every other day. The other popular one is called the 5 to diet. And what the 5 to diet is is on five days of the week you can eat whatever you want. And then on to Nona. Jason Day's select not directly next to each other but on two days during the week those your fast days and during those days you eat like 25 percent of your normal your normal diet.

[00:29:58] So I guess in that sense it is the VAT version is slightly based on caloric restriction. The the other main type of intermittent fasting is what I'm called is what has been called time restricted feeding or time restricted to eating. It's typically called time restrictive feeding more in an animal context and then more in a human context is called time restricted eating. But the idea in time restricted eating is very simple like let's just like talk about like an 11 hour like I was talking was saying 11 hour nine hour before I believe when I was doing this I was doing nine hours before. There's different ways of going about it. But the bottom line is like I would only eat for nine hours of the day and in the rest of the time I was fasting. And so unlike alternative day or a periodic fasting you're fasting every single day you're just fasting during certain periods of the day and then certain periods of the day you can eat absolutely whatever you want so it's psychologically comfortable because you don't have to. You know you know just eat lettuce or whatever. So that's what time restricted feeding is and and the the the big misbelief that people need to get out of their heads is that. We're not misbelief let's go back to the difference between alternative day fasting and time to eating or periodic fasting in time restricted being well. Let's set aside the term periodic fasting because I feel like time restricted eating could technically fall under periodic fasting but of alternative day fasting on the fast day the day where you're not eating though typically those diets would count as drinking liquids and not eating.

[00:31:36] So on the alternative diet it's like you eat every thing you want on day one and then on day two it's like you can drink all the tea and coffee you want be can't eat anything. Type of a thing. And then the alternate between those two days. Ok but on time restricted feeding which is again the type of intermittent fasting that I'm going to personally recommend. And I should be clear I'm not a medical doctor. I'm not even a medical expert but I am an intelligent person that has spent the last week diving into the actual studies both in terms of the medical survey literature where where doctors are surveying what the other doctors have found and then also diving into specific studies. And I will be footnoting those in the show notes if you would like to follow up. But. So when I say I recommend I'm what I'm saying is these are my impressions from that survey. Please make your own decisions please talk to your doctor. Again I am not a medical professional. You see legal disclaimers on our website. But where it was going with that is under time restricted eating or time restrictive feeding. Anything that is not water that goes in your stomach counts as food. And the reason is because. The eating time and time restricted eating is the time when your stomach is supposed to be processing food. And then the rest of the time it's basically supposed to be in the in the don't process food like rebuild like what you would do in the middle of sleep for example. It's supposed to be in rebuild mode.

[00:33:06] So if you drink something that is basically like tea is ground up tea grinds suspended in coffee or coffee or tea is like basically small little bits of the tea leave suspended in the water. And so what happens when those hit the stomach is those have to be processed by the stomach via the stomach acid and the digestive processes have begun. And that sort of kicks your body into you into thinking like oh now's the time of day when we're eating. So on the time restricted feeding schedule you can drink water and during the fasting period. But there's absolutely no food there's no medicine there's no I mean obviously if you have a medical need to take medicine like adjustor time restricted eating accordingly. But within ideally you would not be having medicine you would not be having herbal supplements you would not be having you know. You would not be having anything that is not water outside when you travel outside of the outside of the eating period. So there's this part of the day that's for eating. And there's this part of the day that's for fasting in the part of the day that's for fasting is longer like the part of the day for eating is probably like 9 to 11 hours. My understanding based on the lady first heard from her this from who is Dr. Rhonda Patrick who's a neuroscientist. She indicated that the literature the literature was telling her. That. 11 hour eating window is basically the the longest eating window when you can start seeing positive results and then nine is pretty aggressive.

[00:34:42] And then I mentioned one of our audience members did 6 which is like so aggressive I haven't heard of anybody being that aggressive before but not surprisingly he completely like dropped off a lot of weight when combined with exercise and I should say like. Diet is effective in losing weight and exercise is effective in losing weight. But the scientific literature is very clear. Diet and exercise to gather is much more effective than either died or exercise in isolation. So if you really want to get serious about losing weight again I'm not interested in losing weight but I am very interested in feeling good and running my body optimally. So I research this to help those of you who are interested in losing weight but from a personal interest perspective I'm researching this to be talking about. For me I'm a professional thinker so if there's something I can do to make my brain run better so that I can have better podcasts for you all and I can have better articles for you and I can generally have have more powerful thoughts going on are more effective thoughts going on and I'm very very interested in that. OK just because we're having such pretty weather I'm going to see if I can grab a second. The stuff for us to catch here while still remaining under the cover. Well that's nice but it's an.

[00:36:12] OK I'm just going to go back to where we were. Q. Adjusting camera.

[00:36:28] Our hands are cold should have definitely brought the gloves. OK so now we're going to kind of get into some of the scientific literature here because I want to be real specific about like. Where. I want to be as specific as possible about the evidence because it is it has come to my attention that with dieting there's so many people that are flimflams in that are like oh OK first of all I'm not trying to sell you anything other than obviously if you enjoy this programming and want to support us then please do become a patron. But like I'm not trying to sell you on my diet or like sell you dietary supplements or anything so. I believe I'm already a more credible voice than a lot of people that are talking about this subject. But. There's so many ridiculous claims when it comes to health specifically when it comes to nutrition. And I think the way to correctly navigate those is to look at the evidence and to look at the facts and to look at the scientific studies. And I think realistically not everybody has the time or maybe educational background because even as a very well-educated person like button not a medical doctor. Some of it was a little bit over my head but I was able to follow most of it. So let's go let's go out and get into get into what the findings were.

[00:37:45] Again this is the state of the medical literature as of December 2017. I'm hoping that these podcasts are useful for people for a long period of time. So if there's if there are major developments in the in the field that I become aware of then we'll do a follow up issue or a follow up episode updating you. But first let's just let's talk about kind of the nature of fasting and cravings fasting why is fasting kind of a fad right now and that was another reason why I was a little bit worried about doing an episode about itor not worried but it's kind of like intermittent fasting is cool right now or like the subject of fasting is is. Of interest in nutritional circles so I didn't want to I didn't want to accidentally jump on the bandwagon. If there's not a reason to jump on the bandwagon so that was another reason why like I wanted to study the scientific literature for myself. But the initial I'm going to read some of my findings and this is sort of an overview at the top here. Fasting seems to reduce our overall desire for food after the fast. So. You know on alternative day fasting if you if you. Eat everything you want for one day and then you only twenty five percent of what you want the next day you don't then go eat a 175 percent the third day. The reality is you yeah you eat a little bit more. But it's like 110 percent 120 percent and overall you've eaten way less food. OK. So fasting if you fast.

[00:39:19] Once you stop fasting and enter the eating period you're not. No matter how much you eat you know I guess I can't speak in absolutes but in general the scientific literature suggests that the vast majority of people are not going to eat more over all in a fasting scenario because. They're not even going to eat the same amount because there's not a one to one rebound effect after after the fast.

[00:39:44] Overall intermittent fasting seems to be very effective for weight loss. Again I'm assuming most people who are listening to this subject are interested primarily from a perspective of weight loss and it has primarily been studied from that perspective although there are also studies related to chronic degenerative health help diseases. Ok so I'm going to quote from a journal that's called the Annual Review of nutrition. And this is as of August 2017 or August 2017 edition.

[00:40:12] Metabolic unit studies of alternative alternate alternate day and modified alternate day fasting have documented decreased energy consumption even oh one day fast or 75 percent calorie restriction was shown to reduce caloric intake by approximately 30 percent during the subsequent three days. In other words this was referring to his cuts are the alternative day of fasting that we touched on which is again not mainly what I what I what my impression is from the literature of the best. If I was to make a decision. And again I'm not a doctor but if I was to make a decision about myself and I was trying to lose weight I would do a time restricted feeding where I only eight Duren nine hours in the middle of the day while the sun was up and I fasted during the rest of the time. OK I just wanted to be clear about that. But what we can see from what we can see from the alternative day fasting is in a scenario where somebody ate 100 percent of the food they wanted on day one and then they only ate 25 percent of what they wanted on day two on day three four and five. There's a 30 percent decrease in what it is so they're basically only eating 70 percent. But it's not because they. It's not because they're not allowed to eat percent on those days. It's because there's actually an effect on your hunger if you if you do some fasting. So that's interesting because remember the main problem with your traditional calorie restriction diet is you get so hungry you don't follow the diet. OK so that's.

[00:41:40] There's something interesting about fasting here which is that it's having an effect of. Decreasing your overall hunger and therefore makes it much easier to follow than a clerk or friction diet. Continuing the quote here Choudhary at all the Chowdhry study of skipping breakfast showed no increase in food intake at lunch after the prolonged morning FAST and showed no increased in post lunch appetite.

[00:42:04] So the Choudhary study was a dish it was basically a study where they just had the participants skipped breakfast every day. And what they found is if they had the participants skipped breakfast every day than they'd the participants did not end up eating more for lunch. So that's kind of interesting. And then statistically significant weight reduction was observed in 73 in 73 percent of trials of intermittent fasting. So if you're interested in this for weight loss 73 percent of the. Statistically significant weight reduction occurred in 73 percent of the studies so that seems that seems like OK well this is a legitimate approach to take for this.

[00:42:44] Most fasting regimes reduce the total number of hours available for eating and thereby may reduce overall energy intake and risk of obesity. The timing of food intake with respect to the 24 hour light dark cycle likely has an important influence on food intake as well as on energy efficiency and weight control. Research and shift and night workers who have most of their daily calories at night have an increased risk for obesity. And we'll get into that. But basically the healthiest way to eat is during the day and then not to eat at night. And we'll get into all the reasons why that is ok. I'm getting extremely cold so I'm going to head back in and we will continue this episode indoors.

[00:43:30] And we're back. All right. I've retreated to the comfort of the back of the car studio here. It has actually started snowing pretty intensely and note to self since this is the first knowing episode of the podcast. If I were to attempt this outside again a hat and gloves would probably be a good course of action.

[00:43:51] So duly noted on that. Now that I've warmed up and had a nice cup of coffee let's go ahead and continue. OK so basically what we found out is OK we just went through that one.

[00:44:04] OK. So fasting seems to seems to be a very effective approach to weight loss and it also seems to be effective with chronic diseases although it does appear that studies in humans have been relatively limited. And let's see here I've got another sort of overview quote time restricted feeding may assist with weight loss increase alertness which is very interesting to me and benefit sleep quality. So that's quite a nice trifecta if you think about it. And this is from a journal called Cell Metabolism in 2016. The feasibility of humans adopting a TRF or a time restricted feeding protocol has shown some promp some promise Gillin panda 2015 tested whether altering Gillin pandas like the name of the study Gehlen panda 2015 tested whether altering the daily eating duration by allowing participants to eat their daily caloric intake within a self selected 10 to 11 hour period would impart health benefits to overweight individuals. So again this is saying they could eat for 10 to 11 hours of the day like during daylight but they could choose which 10 to 11 hours away it was in the rest of time rest of the time they were going to fast eight over overweight participants ate their entire daily caloric intake within the self selected 10 to 11 hour window so they weren't asked to eat less. They were just after only within the 10 to 11 hour window reducing eating duration in humans also reduced their daily caloric intake by up to 20 percent. So they ended up eating less even though they were not necessarily told to eat less.

[00:45:47] And then it notes some of this reduction came from reduction and late night alcohol and snacks. No surprise to anyone they lost up to 4 percent body weight in 16 weeks and retained this weight loss for up to one year which is a major problem with caloric restriction is the so-called rebound where as soon as you stop doing Clerke restriction you go back to the same weight. They also reported improved sleep at night and elevated alertness during the day. Additional studies have also suggested that TRF again tarof is time restricted feeding confers potential benefits to human health. A prolonged overnight fasting period of greater than 13 hours which is the flip side of the 11 hour eating window because 11 plus 13 point 24 hours correlated with reduced breast cancer risk. So at least specific to breast cancer it looks like that has a positive positive effect on the ability to combat against that more focused studies on the impact of restrictive feeding on both prevention and prognosis of chronic diseases is warranted.

[00:46:52] And that was kind of a common refrain I found as I was as I was looking into these studies is a lot of them said like oh hey this is initially promising. I'm not seeing any studies that are contradicting these initial conclusions but hey we need to have you know further study is necessary we need studies with a lot of people over long duration of time you know ideally. Ok one more quote from so this is also from cell metabolism that time restricted feeding is generally promising because time restricted feeding seems to show potential across a wide variety of degenerative diseases. And I just have a quick aside here.

[00:47:32] I don't think I need to explain to anybody that cancer is not to your benefit to get cancer and it's not to your benefit to get all timer's or Alzheimer's. I will say I lost both grandparents on my mother's side two differing forms of dementia. My cousins corrected me. I thought it was all timer's Alzheimer's but my cousin corrected me that it was another type of dementia.

[00:47:56] I don't really understand dementia that much but the bottom line is dying dying is one thing dying doesn't really bother me. Hopefully I live a long life and one day I'm going to die we're all going to die.

[00:48:08] But living physically living and losing your mind so that you can't take care of yourself and so that you're a burden on all those around you is is like my worst nightmare of a way to die and I will say it was really frustrating interacting with those people because you once you once you get to the point where you lose the ability to have a conversation with someone then you really lose the ability to have a deep emotional connection with someone and that is very sad.

[00:48:39] So I would just you know basically try and interact with these people but their mind was gone and so we would end up being limited and it was very emotionally fraught. It was very you know very trying for me to deal with and not to bomb anybody out but I'm just saying I just want to I just want to be clear as somebody who has who has not personally experienced Alzheimers as somebody who's that my mind go but I've experienced Alzheimer's in terms of having family members die from it. And it is horrible. You you have this person who is alive but you can't actually relate to. You have to take care of them but it's not really possible to take care of them. It is a fucking nightmare. Excuse my excuse my my my cursing but I just want to emphasize like it's a big deal if this can affect Alzheimer's and Alzheimer's is one of the things that medical science does not really understand how to prevent it in my. From what I understand of the current state of science. OK so that's a really big deal that time restricted feeding may have an impact on this. And again the theory is and we'll get into this in more detail. But the theory is that there's a time to eat and a time to basically regenerate and rebuild. And through time restricted feeding you're enabling your body to rebuild so that you don't get into these neurodegenerative situations. So from cell metabolism again this was in 2016 obesity in the U.S. which is nearly tripled in the last 50 years.

[00:50:08] And by the way I would say like why has it tripled in the last 50 years. What has changed about the diet and exercise regimen in the last 50 years. I think that sort of speaks for itself. We've gone to an industrialized diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Not me personally but in general the society is doing that has has been accompanied by an approximately seven fold increase in diabetes prevalence and a more modest increase in cancer incidence so cancer is going up. Diabetes is going up and obesity has has nearly tripled in the last 50 years. Recently I f NPF and you get nuts Internet intermittent fasting and periodic fasting as well as TRF which is a time restricted feeding so those are all sort of different examples of intermittent fasting have emerged as potential strategies for avoiding major dietary changes while achieving strong effects not just for one disease risk factor but for an array of factors that constitutes the foundation for metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease cancer and possibly neurodegenerative diseases although their mechanisms of vaccines are still poorly understood. They appear to promote coordinated effects in the ageing process and do not simply inhibit specific enzymes as is often the case for drugs. Basically the reason why drugs have not been totally effective and in some of these disorders is because all they can basically do is like pick one enzyme and turn that off. But the the brain and the body is so ridiculously complex like something more effective is necessary and the idea at least conceptually is that fasting is creating many effects throughout your body. And these are effects that are consistent with the natural rhythm which is we'll get into second.

[00:51:56] But I keep alluding to the state of the research I wanted to kind of read a quote specific specifically related to like where are we on the research and this was basically the conclusion of one of the journal articles that I've found which is basically like here's what's been proven and here's what still has yet to be proven. So I think that this will be this will be really useful intermittent fasting shows a lot of promise. But further study in humans is needed to confirm initial findings in animals like we kind of sit at the top. So again this is from the annual review of nutrition in August 2017. Even a single fasting interval in humans for example overnight can reduce basal concentrations of many metabolic biomarkers associated with chronic diseases such as insulin and glucose.

[00:52:44] An important clinical and scientific question is whether adopting a regular intermittent fasting regime. And again that's what we're talking about when we're talking about time restricted feeding whether adopting a regular intermittent fasting regime is a feasible and sustainable population base strategy for promoting metabolic health further properly powered controlled clinical research is needed to test whether intermittent fasting regimes can complement or replace energy restriction.

[00:53:14] And that's another way of saying caloric restriction and if so whether they can facilitate long term metabolic improvements and body weight management additionally intermittent fasting regimens attempts to translate the positive effects of fasting regimes in regimens in rodents and other mammals into practical eating patterns for reducing the risk of chronic disease in humans. So yes most of the most of this to be so far have been in rodents and other mammals and they're they're basically extrapolating them onto humans other than before studies for specific studies. This overview suggest the four specific studies on humans that are fractured and I'm not sure if I if I have a quote about before specific studies of the specific studies are basically for call it 20 to 30 person studies two of which were in normal weight individuals two of which were in obese individuals. All studies showed people lost body weight as a result. The experiment so initial human results are positive but they are they are a limited sample size and therefore further testing is necessary. Continuing here this overview suggests that intermittent fasting may be a promising approach to losing weight and improve and improving metabolic health for people who can safely tolerate intervals of not eating or eating very little for certain hours of the day night or days of the week. And what that's referring to is there has there has not been any research into OK well a healthy person it makes sense that fasting would potentially be good for a healthy person but if you're kind of a sick person is fasting too much of a stressor on your body.

[00:54:49] That is that is a completely open scientific question with zero studies to date examining yet. Summary points one studies in rodents another nocturnal mammal support the hypothesis that intermittent fasting and restricting the availability of food to the normal nighttime feeding cycle improve metabolic profiles and reduce the risk of obesity and obesity related conditions of the rats and the other mammals. They are there decreasing the risks of obesity related conditions.

[00:55:21] However data from related human studies are limited regarding the positive effects of time restricted feeding i.e. eating patterns aligned with normal circadian rhythms on weight and metabolic health. OK that's what we just talked about too. Overall evidence suggests that it has been Festing regimes are not harmful physically or mentally i.e. in terms of mood in healthy normal overweight or obese adults.

[00:55:45] OK so it doesn't make people super grapey and it is not. It is not provoking an obvious negative health response in either obese people or normal healthy people but it has not been studied unlike sickly and highly aged people. 3 It appears that almost any intermittent fasting regime can result in some weight loss. OK I've bolded that because again I'm assuming most people who are listening to the entire episode of this podcast are either listening because they listen to every single episode and thank you so much if you're one of those people. But otherwise if you're just listening to and this is your first episode you're probably listening because you want to lose weight. So I'll read the read Datsuns again. It appears that almost any intermittent fasting regime can result in some weight loss and the specific one we're advocating here is time restricted feeding and as a note to self I will try and lay out lay out in the article version exactly what constitutes time restrictive feeding but simplistically it's 9 to 11 hours of eating and the rest of the time you're not eating including coffee and tea and supplements among the 16 intervention trails included in this review. 11 report is statistically significant weight loss and I think all of them actually reported weight loss but not all of them reported like statistically significant compared to the control group. So that's why it's 11 of 16 were statistically significant reductions of weight loss or reductions in weight. Number four alternative alternate day fasting appeared to result.

[00:57:15] Remember alternative alternate day fasting is like 1 day of eating one day of fasting one day of eating one day of fasting which is not what I'm recommending here. And again I'm not a doctor but based on my opinion I think you should be restricted feeding but it is still it is still useful to look at the studies based on alternate day fasting because they still help to explore what is going on inside the body when the fasting is occurring. 4 Alternate day fasting appeared to result in weight loss as well as reductions in glucose and insulin concentrations which is that's positive in the three studies of valuing this regimen.

[00:57:51] However this fasting regimen may not be practical because it leads to intense hunger on fasting days and that's basically why time restricted feeding is more psychologically advantageous because as we already established when you are on a time restricted feeding schedule you're going to be fasting and that's actually going to decrease your overall level of hunger as opposed to these intense bouts of hunger on fasting days which are of course highly unpleasant and therefore encourage people not to follow the diet. Modified alternative to alternate day fasting which is against on the fast 8 25 percent instead of eating instead of being zero percent results in reduced weight with reductions ranging from three point two percent in comparison with the control group during a 12 week period to 8 percent in a one arm trial during an eight week period. So alternate day fasting was effective but it is much less pleasant than time restricted feeding. That's that's the main reason why it seems like time restricted feeding is better because like well would you rather put yourself through like hell every other day or would you rather everyday like be pretty good and like it's been my experience like it's a little bit annoying not to eat during the Nonni period but your body really gets used to it and you do not experience intense hunger pains during those periods or at least. Now again granted I'm an active Morfe and I'm not trying to lose a bunch of weight.

[00:59:18] So I would very much by the way I like to hear about people's experiences and if you would like to share those please either join our Facebook group or drop us a line via the via the Web site number five research has not demonstrated that alternate day fasting regimes produce superior weight loss in comparison to standard continuous calorie restriction weight loss plans.

[00:59:39] I would say basically related to that it seems like a traditional caloric restriction works. It seems like alternate day fasting works. It seems like time restricted feeding works but it seems to me all of those sounds miserable except for time restricted feeding so out of all of those ones that work for weight loss it seems like well let's do the one leads to a pleasant existence. Since it's not a short term diet it's like this is how we're going to eat every day for the rest of our lives. Basically 6 There's concern there are considerable observational data on various forms of religious fasting most of which suggests that these regimes result in transitory weight loss and have mixed impacts on other biomarkers. What this is related to is saying they basically studied people who were following Islamic eating habits during Ramadan and what they found was the people lost weight during the fasting month but then regained it when they went back to their normal diet. But again the Ramadan evidence is not necessarily directly applicable because the Islamic people are eating at night and I am going to recommend based on this literature. And once again I'm not a medical professional but I am going to recommend that if you try time restricted feeding you're going to want your didn't want the time you eat to be during the day not not at night. So that's what that evidence is not totally useful. OK. And then lastly there are limited data linking intermittent fasting regimes with clinical outcomes such as diabetes cardiovascular disease cancer or other chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

[01:01:13] So it's basically just saying hey we need individual studies talking about all those different things.

[01:01:20] And oh I do have the list of the studies before studies. Let's see if there's anything else that I want to bring up about them. I mean they were pretty short term looks like the longest one was about eight weeks.

[01:01:33] They all seem to result in weight loss not much more to say about it.

[01:01:45] The reality is though if there's only four studies in this the studies are like 20 to 30 people like obviously for further studies. OK but let's get into the theory of this like theoretically why should time restricted feeding be an effective way to feed yourself or why does it make sense to feed yourself that way or put it in more of like a way the paleo diet people talk about it is like Why is time restricted feeding more like how a human being would have eaten ancestrally of doing a lot of thinking about this recently where it's like a human being is a machine that is optimized for a particular environment in that environment is not modern society it's like prehistoric society. Ok so I'm not going to go off in that direction philosophically right now but it seems like one of the systematic causes of unhappiness is like we're sort of like this outdated machine which is outdated in the sense that like we're optimized for an ecosystem we're not living in anymore. So like our options are either to adjust the way that we're approaching things. And this time restricted feeding is a way to manually adjust the way that you're approaching modern society so that your body is responding more like it would in a natural situation. And I think it makes reasonable. You know it's a hypothesis but I think it makes reasonable sense that the more you put your body in the sort of situation that it that it is already set up to thrive then the more it will thrive on average you know over time. OK so let's get into what does the natural fasting and feeding cycle.

[01:03:18] And again this ties in with the whole you know Yin Yang Tao ism conversations that we've had before that there are the two forces there's positive and negative yin and yang whatever you want to call them the two forces have many words good and evil. But this is another instance of the of the two forces so there is a there is a cycle in nature which is the feeding fasting cycle so the theory goes here. There's a natural feeding fasting cycle in animals and that mimics the day night cycle. And the reason why it mimics the day seitan day night cycle is because it's actually directly based on the day night cycle. So going back to the journal called Cell Metabolism let's get into that feeding in most animals is confined to define period leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. So sleep is kind of like a built in fast. That's why the first meal of the day is called breakfast because it is assumed that you have fasted all throughout the night fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body like carbon sources. And again if you really get into the fasting literature that's what everybody gets excited about is like oh you stop burning glucose and you start burning these ketones and you know the people who are talking intermittent fasting up all the time restricting feeding up are always talking about these ketones both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases.

[01:04:54] Similarly time restricted feeding also known as TRF in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day allows the daily fasting period to last a greater than 12 hours thus imparting benefits in multiple organisms and why is that. Let's get into like why would there be a feeding fasting cycle and it relates to the day night cycle. Lifeforms on our planet have evolved under the strong influence of a daily light dark light dark cycle sunlight being the primary source of energy for photosynthesis the daily production of photosynthetic biomass has a predictable diurnal rhythm or in other words plants are ultimately driving what's going on with the animals because the animals are either eating plants or eating animals that in turn eat the plants and the plants have access to the sunlight only during the daytime. So the plans already have this like day night cycle where they're growing more during the day and now that I say that I think they actually grow more at night but they're accessing sun during the day and therefore they have a day night cycle.

[01:06:07] The daily cyclical production of photosynthesize chemical energy is at the base of the food chain daily changes in light and darkness result in diurnal rhythms. In other environmental parameters such as temperature and humidity so these are all kind of going on a cycle. And you see this everywhere in nature. But this is just examining this aspect of such a predictable and robust daily rhythm in food availability and environmental factors has led to the evolution of a roughly 24 hour internal timing mechanism or circadian rhythm circadian rhythm to enable organisms to anticipate daily changes and to optimize fitness. In other words the animals tends to have an internal 24 hour clock so that they can help line up with these natural cycles fundamental to those 24 hour or hour rhythm. I thought this was fascinating fundamental will do this 24 hour rhythm is the ability to acquire food when it is available and store a portion of these resources for utilization during the rest of the day i.e. during the fasting period without compromising fitness and vitality. The fasting period also serves as a time for stand by and repair. So the organism is fit and competent to harvest energy when food becomes available inherent to this alternating cycle of feeding and fasting is the theory that fasting physiology i.e. certain stuff is going on in your body during the fasting period fasting physiology is triggered once stored energy is being utilized and therefore does not occur during the feeding period.

[01:07:46] So in other words fasting physiology is never getting triggered if you're like eating all day and then you're waking up in the middle of the night and eating your never getting the physiology from the fasting half of the cycle. And I didn't really touch on this. We'll get into this like as we explore the way that eating is connected with the circadian rhythms. But basically if you don't want to fall on take on the time restricted eating diet one takeaway is like do not wake up in the middle of the night and snack like at least at least don't do that it seems like that's particularly unhealthy because again it's interrupting the natural fasting part of the cycle. This theory also highlights the notion that certain aspects of repair of rejuvenation that are integral to fasting re feeding physiology may be associated only with fasting hence intermittent and periodic fasting may represent important factors in optimum optimizing lifespan and health span. With

[01:08:46] health span being lifespan being how long you live and health stand being like how long you live a healthy existence. Not not necessarily like how long are you physically alive but how long are you active in life fully mentally like there in your head.

[01:09:03] Restricting the timing of food intake to a few hours without an overt attempt to reduce caloric intake as in time recently you know as is the case with time restricted feeding may trigger the fasting physiology after a few hours of feeding sensation on a daily basis. So

[01:09:19] that kind of gives us a good overview of it and I am not sure if I included this quote. So let me just go ahead and get into one aspect that I thought was really interesting which is that OK so there's the circadian rhythm and there may be a quote about this later but there's there's this circadian rhythm and it is basically a 24 hour rhythm. OK.

[01:09:38] But with human beings. I'm sorry but with all animals they have the ability to like adjust that clock because basically the day length changes during the course of the year and like their various cycles so various adjustments are necessary over time. So the body responds to those environmental conditions and that has been very helpful from an evolutionary evolutionary perspective. But now that we're in modern society and people are getting like these strange signals like artificial light in the middle of the night that fungibility or that ability for the circadian rhythm to change is actually turning into more of a liability if you don't know how to properly train it. Oh so looks like we're getting into that right now so let's go ahead and talk about the issues with artificial light artificial light encourages poor eating habits that violate the natural rhythms or violate this natural feeding during the day fasting at night cycle that we've been talking about. And and again again this is from cell metabolism I'm going to link to the cell metabolism article linked to the two or three articles that I'm going to be quoting in this episode are that I am quoting in this episode the presence of artificial light enables human activity throughout the 24 hour day. And we all know that this disruptive activity rest cycle indirectly disrupts the natural daily cycle of feeding and fasting and facilitates excessive caloric intake. Because we're eating during way more hours than we would be naturally such such chronically disrupted temporal regulation contributes to metabolic diseases that may also accelerate the aging process. And obviously accelerating the aging process most people would consider that to be a idea. OK.

[01:11:24] So that kind of gets to natural lighting I guess is interrupting the natural sort of day night eating system that has worked for humans throughout history. And what is the result. What are how are people eating in modern society and basically what cell metabolism found is that a modern society on average people are eating for over 15 hours per day. Among a cohort of 156 adults which did not include any shift workers so shift workers are particularly it's particularly hard to eat well if you're a shift worker because it's like your work schedule sort of makes you have to eat at night.

[01:12:05] So it's specifically noting that it was not including shift workers in the sample size. Nearly 50 percent were likely eat during lunch for a prolonged period every day greater than 15 hours overall. 80 percent of adults consumed a non water food or beverage within an hour of waking up and 50 percent of adults consumed food or beverage. Less than two hours before bedtime. This implies that a sizable portion of daily food intake is in the form of frequent snacks between major meals and after dinner snacks or beverages extension of daily reading duration from first caloric intake to less caloric intake may also account for excessive caloric intake.

[01:12:44] In other words like another reason why people are eating so much is because maybe you're naturally supposed to eat for 9 to 11 hours. But actually people are ending up eating for 15 16 hours or maybe even longer because of their exposure to artificial light and because of their work schedules and because of the realities of modern existence. And I touched on this with the eating late at night. Let's get into like Why specifically is eating late at night. Bad for you. And by late at night I mean like the worst kind of eating would be waking up in the middle of the night and eating had like 2:00 or 3:00 a.m. or whatever or to say the flip side one of the reasons why time restricted eating or time restricted feeding maybe healthy in part might be because it prevents late night eating because this late night eating is so super unhealthy. So this is from the annual review nutrition 2017 numerous observation studies have reported that nighttime eating is associated with reduced sleep duration and poor sleep quality. So even setting aside the nutritional aspect it's like if you're eating in the middle of the night that has an effect on your sleep. And I should probably should probably note that in the show notes about her sleep episode but we did a whole we did a whole episode on sleep quality.

[01:14:01] And there are actually so many things that it can affect your sleep quality we didn't even touch on this. But anyway nighttime eating is associated with reduced sleep duration and poor sleep quality which can lead to insulin resistance and increase risk of obesity diabetes cardiovascular disease and cancer which are basically various symptoms that your body is not running optimally specifically eating meals at an abnormal circadian times i.e. late at night is hypothesized to lead to circadian synchronization and subsequent disruption of normal sleep patterns. In other words your circadian rhythms are out of sync with the reality around you thus giving you an experience very similar to jetlag. Chowdry at all found no effect. And again that's a study named chatterer if at all found no effect of regularly skipping the breakfast meal i.e. you prolong the nighttime fast on waking time. So there was there was no effect on sleep time or sleep duration compared with controls to our knowledge no other studies have directly examined associations between intermittent fasting and sleep in free living adults.

[01:15:11] So that's that's really interesting. So that intermittent fasting may not just be healthy for your diet it may actually help your sleep.

[01:15:18] And that very much was my experience with intermittent fasting or we'll talk we'll specifically talk about time restricted feeding here is. It gave a very nice and I mentioned this in the health episode or in the diet episode gave this very nice yin yang feeling to the day like I would wake up and I was not really hungry because my body knew that I wasn't going to eat. And then once it was time to eat it was like it was like it was being revved up and I actually would eat a lot more than normal during those specific meals. But overall my caloric intake was probably equal but I kind of had this feeling like it's time to eat. It's time to work. It's time to go out in the world and it was it was very like Yang kind of feeling. And then once I once I reached the end of the day and I wasn't allowed to eat anymore. I had a real yen kind of feeling like my body did not have a desire to go out and chase things it had a desire to relax and chill and I think a lot of that was related to the fact that it wasn't processing food or at least that's my hypothesis OK. And so just to sort of conclude here to give sort of a concluding summary.

[01:16:31] Theoretically speaking periodic fasting is more in tune with natural human physiology than so-called free feeding just eating whatever the heck you feel like it. In modern society and this is this is from a journal called called Aging Research reviews and what they do is they they go out and look and see what is the research in in an aging and what is the latest in aging. This is from 2017 humans in modern societies typically can consume food at least three times daily while laboratory animals are fed ad ad ad libitum which basically means free feeding them overconsumption of food with such eating patterns often leads to metabolic morbidity such as insulin resistance excessive accumulation of visceral fat etc. particularly wouldn't associated with a sedentary lifestyle. So again it's not just. It's not just diet. It's diet and exercise and how are those interacting with each other and if you really want to lose weight and diet and exercise together are going to be like way way way way way more effective than just diet. And I did this sentence because animals including humans evolved in environments where food was relatively scarce. They developed numerous adaptations that enabled them to function at a high level both physically and cognitively when in a food deprived slash fasted state.

[01:17:56] And I did find that I found that mental clarity was quite high when I was doing at the time restricted feeding intermittent fasting also known as I.F. encompasses eating patterns in which individuals go extended periods with little or no energy intake with intervening periods and normal food intake on a recurring basis like we talked about at the beginning intermittent fasting is the general category that we're talking about here we use the term periodic Festing to refer to intermittent fasting with periods of fasting or fasting mimicking diets lasting from 2 to as many as 21 or more days in laboratory rats and mice I.F. and PEF have profound beneficial effects on many different indices of health.

[01:18:36] And most importantly can counteract disease processes and improve functional outcome in Shakespeare in experimental models of a wide range of age related disorders including diabetes cardiovascular disease cancer and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease Parkinson's disease and stroke.

[01:18:58] So what's interesting is it's not just affecting one outcome it's affecting a wide range of outcomes and I think that that's why there's so much excitement around this topic in the scientific literature studies of time restricted feeding in normal and overweight human subjects have demonstrated efficacy for weight loss and improvements in multiple health indicators including insulin resistance and reductions of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which intermittent fasting improves health and counteracts disease processes involved DNA repair periodic fasting also promotes stem cell based regeneration as well as long lasting metabolic effects.

[01:19:41] The concluding thought on why fasting is effective and time restricted feeding is effective is because it actually enables DNA repair and it kind of kiks your stem cells into high gear where there is some benefit from a stem cell based regeneration perspective. So in conclusion I think there's a my.

[01:20:07] General impression from going through all of this specific data and the medical literature is that there's a reason there's an excitement around intermittent fasting and specifically related to the topic of time restricted feeding. So I think it would probably be very productive for you know I don't know your situation please consult with your medical professional but if you want to try it out for you. Justin is an experiment where you know an N equals one experiment just on yourself because again don't you care mostly about yourself and those immediately around you. Or at least that's not really how I meant to say what I meant to say is like your body is going to affect your experience of reality and therefore like your body is Mourik is more significant to your experience of reality than other people's bodies. So a study of just yourself is still a useful study. And here's how you would set that up. You would only you would you would only eat for 9 to 11 hours a day if I was in good fitness and in sort of a healthy weight range I would probably pick 11 hours if I was looking to lose weight. I would probably pick nine hours and I would eat during those periods of the day and then I would not eat afterwards so that would probably look like not drinking coffee when you first wake up having sort of a late breakfast or sort of like having brunches your late brunch is your first meal and then an early dinner as your last meal is kind of like how it feels to have I think a nine hour eating windows.

[01:21:36] What I tried out before so try it out for yourself see what is the effect on your sleep. What is the effect on your mental clarity. And then what is the effect on your overall health. And we would love to hear you know specific details possible we would love to hear your experiences so please do contact us we have a lot of ways to do that in the show knows both if you want to ask a question related to this really interesting and practical information or if you want to share your experience or hey like I mentioned at the top if you want to turn it into an article then go ahead and do that and then submit it to our online magazine via media. But we really appreciate your time. We appreciate you joining us. We're hoping again as I've stated for the vast majority of these episodes what I would like to accomplish is either you learning a skill that's going to make your life better a little micro skill or learn a piece of knowledge obtain a better understanding which is going to have a direct impact on your life. So if you think about it you're going to eat every day for the rest of your life. And if we have together encountered a way of setting up your eating that's going to make your experience of reality better and is going to make you feel more physically fit and alert. I think it's going to be an everybody wins situation, so please do try it out let us know if your life does get dramatically affected as a result of some of these changes.

[01:22:56] Do please consider becoming a patron and encouraging the work that we're doing here at Aspire. Oh I didn't want to say one other thing in conclusion which is if aspire has positively benefited your life if you have enjoyed this episode please go on to iTunes and write us and give us a review. I'm not sure if you can rate without giving review but the number one way that people find out about podcasts is from the iTunes store and podcasts are available for free. But a lot of people just browse through the podcasts and the way that Apple decides which ones to feature is partially based on some metrics they follow in terms of how many downloads of each episode etc. but mostly it's related to out of the downloads that happen. How many people are going back and giving a 5 star review on iTunes so please do not consider giving us a five star review on iTunes. If you were thinking about giving us like not as great of a review I would really rather if you just contacted me directly so that I know how I can improve and we know how we can improve in the future and if there's some sort of problem that needs to be resolved please do contact us directly. But if you if you didn't love it please do just contact me and let me know so that I can improve. And then if you did love it please let iTunes knows that more people can learn about the show.