27 - How to Create a Super Ecological Farm on the Cheap

In this episode, we clear up the misconception that eating meat is bad for the environment. I describe what a super ecological food system would look like, as well as how to get started if you are interested in producing regenerative / permaculture quality food.

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Episode Transcript

[00:00:00] Intro Sequence

[00:03:15] Hello everyone and welcome to another edition of the Aspire Healthy Living Podcast. We've got a really exciting one for you today. We're going to be talking about growing food. Now we've talked about growing food at least on the side there articles related to primarily growing food in a very space constrained environment. So if you're in a condominium say or an apartment and you just have the opportunity to grow on your porch. We have resources specifically published about that on the site and I'll link to those in the show notes and then we also have resources about maybe like a single family home sort of growing area if you'd like to grow in your yard. We've got some great resources there but today we're going to talk about growing on a larger scale.

[00:04:01] If you wanted to be a farmer you wanted to actually have a farm. What would be kind of regenerative cutting edge practices that would enable you to create super high quality food at an affordable price or at the minimum possible price point in terms of your expenses. So what I'm going to try and do with this episode is I'm going to try and actually get two audiences. I understand that most people are not going to go out and start a farm.

[00:04:31] So the main audience will be kind of your normal everyday person who wants to be better educated about what would higher quality food look like. I think a lot of us intuitively know you know animals that are grown in near torture conditions for their entire life. That's not optimal but a lot of people don't really understand what we're doing wrong with our most food production right now and how much more regenerative our food production really could be. So that's the first audience and then the second audience is people who want to actually make a go and generating food and growing food and becoming more connected to the land and for them this is going to be really specific action plan. This is going to basically be a business plan if you want to start a super ecological farm with the minimum amount of money necessary. And that's going to be sort of a 10 step a 10 step sequence that we're going to talk about in this episode so it'll be it'll be real practical for those of you who are looking to grow food on kind of a medium to large scale and it will be very informative for the rest of us because of course we all eat and there is kind of a tendency to just go and buy what's available. But you know for example your average chicken that you buy in a store I don't really want to get into the details right now but that chicken has basically been tortured for their entire life.

[00:05:53] And I and I it is my opinion that a tortured animal when you eat a tortured animal you're basically taking on some of that psychic energy. I do believe that eating meat. You you are basically ingesting the energetic imprint of the animal that you're eating. And so it wouldn't be optimal and also morally it would obviously be optimal to raise animals in kind of like an animal paradise where they really have a wonderful life. And then when you eat that animal it's my. My hypothesis is that it will be more nourishing. And I've been thinking a lot about this recently because they keep seeing stuff around the Internet like you know vegans say we all have to stop eating meat because cows are a huge cause of global warming. You know things like that things that are basically I don't want to say scare mongering but this idea that the solution to the environmental crisis is to stop eating meat. I just think that's absolutely ridiculous. The vast majority of people are not going to stop eating meat. Whether you think whether a vegan thinks it's morally acceptable or not doubling the amount of vegans in the world would not make nearly as much of a difference on meat consumed as if when compared to your normal person.

[00:07:09] Every normal person stopped eating quite as much meat but actually meat is the or using livestock is one of the most regenerative possible practices that you can have actually when comparing just leaving land completely vacant and compared to a regenerative use of animals the land that has the regenerative use of animals recovers much more quickly and starts to be in a thriving sort of sort of it starts to thrive much faster. And if you would if you would like to get more information on that there's a book called holistic management that really gets into it in detail. I would say I would recommend that more for like people who want to become professional farmers because it's like a 500 page book it's fairly it's fairly academic but if you're planning to use animals on your farm I do think it's actually pretty useful information but I would at least outwardly mention that. And then again I sort of mentioned this in passing but you can find feeding operations or cave foe's and similar related technologies like gestation crates I believe those are fundamentally immoral and those are those are commonly used in animal livestock production right now. And I think that there's a better way and I think one of the things that is inhibiting us from adopting the better way is that people to understand what the better way is. So here it is to try to make it as simple as possible. I think there's a better way to grow animals and meat animals and agricultural plants for foods of both types of food plant plants for food and animals for food. I think there's a better way to be doing that.

[00:08:47] And I'm going to try and outline in as an you know non-technical of nature as possible of an outline how to do that today. So I think it will be a great learning topic for the majority of people so that they can start making making choices with their purchases to be supporting regenerative growers and also very useful if somebody actually wants to become a original regenerative grower. Now either the people or any member of the audience is always welcome to submit questions. Just go to our Web site aspire123.com. Scroll to the bottom and click ask the question. We have a recurring type of up episode where I answer any questions you might have. And if you're passionate about the subject of growing food if you're passionate about the subject of animal rights if you're passionate about the subject of regenerating the world and also moving in the direction of living a more connected lifestyle I think this is going to be very useful and please feel free to ask any ask any questions that you deem appropriate. Now I do want to say at the top why isn't organic enough. Ok people who don't really who are not that deep into agriculture don't really understand. Organic is basically like a gimmick that people came up with and want to call it a gimmick because there's a certification process behind it but it's basically like conventional agriculture uses poisons to grow food. So the classic example is corn created this corn called BT corn and and what B.T. corn is is court and it's able to be sprayed with this poison called Beati and still survive.

[00:10:24] So you plant an entire field with corn you with this BT enabled corn or whatever you call it from Monsanto. And I believe it's for months on them and then you you spray this pesticide that's B.T. and that enables you to suppress the weeds. OK. But it has it has deleterious or negative health consequences for people who eat it because of course there's a residue of that pesticide. Now you would think organic means like no pesticides.

[00:10:51] Awesome But what organic actually means is only using certain types of pesticides so it still has an approach where it still applies pesticides to the food. It's just he uses a restricted list of those pesticides. And by the way there's a huge market premium on that organic foods and there's a reason why they do that. Now I would say regenerative or ecological or super organic maybe we don't have a great word for it. Let's just use regenerative as the word regenerative or permaculture approach would be getting on the same side as nature instead of trying to fight weeds with poisons. We want to use weeds as food producing foods or as ways to as ways to move the ecosystem forward so that they can continue so that it can continue to develop and become more ecologically rich. That's that's what the very word regenerative means so I would say traditional agriculture which would be conventional agriculture and would be organic or quote unquote organic agriculture that is using an us versus them that saying I'm going to use poison to control what I don't want and the food they sell is obviously going to have residues of that poison versus the regenerative approach is not using poison the regenerative approach is leaning into what nature wants to do and harnessing the power of nature and will get into the specific details of some some specific ideas and concepts I would like to introduce you to related to how to do that. But if you think about it if you just leave a field idle and it starts getting all sorts of weeds and stuff.

[00:12:34] Do you have to fertilize that field Did you have to go mow that field to get the weeds to grow. No you didn't because nature has this amazing creative creative potential especially during the spring summer and fall. And so the idea is well we don't have to use as much in the way of machines and pesticides. If we're actually cooperating with nature and using that preexisting engine of nature to produce. So I just wanted to be clear on that. The reason why we want to create regenerative food is because the food that I want for myself and the food that I want to feed my future children and the food that I want to feed my future wife for she's you know incubating my children and in general is a super high quality poison free food. So the reason I'm so passionate about this subject and the reason why I think it's applicable to anybody who wants to live a healthy life not just people who are passionate about agriculture. Even if you go to a high end grocery store and even if you buy the most high end organic food it's not high enough quality. The the true highest quality food that could be produced today is actually not available in the market. And the only way to get it unless you happen to be friends with a regenerative farmer is to go grow it yourself. And that is why I had spent years conducting experiments at a small skill level as I mentioned I've conducted experiments at sort of an apartment patio level and at a single family house level. And I very much look forward to implementing these ideas that I'm going to talk about today.

[00:14:11] I guess it should be clear these ideas I have gleamed them for many people who have real world experience. I have not personally operated a farm. I very much look forward to creating a demonstration property based on some of these concepts here hopefully eventually multiple demonstration properties. And that's part of what we're doing other Spierer. When you become a patron you're basically putting 10 bucks a month towards a future where we can actually demonstrate some of these ideas because I've mentioned in the past I don't believe that your average farmer wants to be degrading the earth. And I forgot to mention organic farmers I believe are still making their landowners year after year versus regenerative farmers. What I'm going to recommend today I think makes the land better year after year after year so obviously it's healthier for everybody all around if we're making the land better and better. But if I'm a normal average conventional farmer all I need to see is an example of somebody who could grow higher quality food that can be sold for a higher price with less work and with less cost and then there's going to be a stampede towards regenerative agriculture. So that's why I believe that the creation of demonstration sites are so important. And also because I think that there's a lot of misinformation out there in the world about like oh well regenerative practices can't feed the world we need these like food production hell holes that we've created because there's just so many people I I. I do not believe that's true. I believe that that is based on faulty assumptions and those faulty assumptions have been basically like projected out into the future.

[00:15:46] And so I think if we have a demonstration property where we show you know X pounds of super organic food or can be produced per year on why of land and then run the calculations how many people is that able to feed that will be extremely useful scientific data and then we can put it out there for other scientists and farmers to replicate. So that is kind of at a high level what I'm trying to do here is I'm trying to outline what in my mind how should we be producing food. I think we should be producing food in a way where animals live great lives. We're a diverse set of crops is it able to flourish where there's plenty. It's creating natural ecosystems for other for other animals like wild birds and things like that. And over all the earth is getting better and richer biodiversity wise rather than more Bhanot cropped and less diverse and frankly more covered in concrete. That's that's fundamentally the main shift in in-focus I believe we should be making is this civilization OK. So the goal is to create the highest quality possible food with the minimum amount of inputs. In other words I would like to have a situation where if somebody wants to go and be serious about producing high quality food and by the way if you are a person who's serious about producing high quality food and you're already doing please get in touch with me so we can maybe generate some sort of co-op or something so that those of us interested in consuming that high quality food can prove can get access to it.

[00:17:22] But the goal is to make it affordable so that we can have more food producers creating this sort of food. And the approach that I'm going to suggest today does not use any expensive equipment expensive equipment use is a huge cost that you don't need to incur. And it's primarily incurred by people because they're used to thinking about agriculture from an industrialized mindset. I don't really plan to get into this too much today. But though the fundamental way that I think that we've gone wrong is conventional agriculture and organic agriculture is treating the production of food like it's a factory. OK. Raising plants and raising animals is a biological operation and it is not an operation in my opinion that is best that is best conducted in a factory kind of mindset. It's not the same thing as like building a car in an automobile factory. So this approach I'm going to suggest today is highly natural. We basically want to think about what is this plant or animals natural environment and then we want to reproduce that as much as possible so that these plants and animals are basically living in their version of paradise and then yes we're also using them for food sources. But it is a very natural method.

[00:18:40] And we already touched on this but it is a method that uses the zero animal torture almost any animal that is raised for food production today if you look into the details I'm not going to bum anybody out but if you just look and if you do a five minute google search on any one animal that you think about eating specifically let's say chickens since that's seven eighths of the animals that are killed in the United States every year for food if you just look at the way chickens were raised and you think would I want to be one of these chickens being raised like this. Hell no. But would I want to be one of these animals raised in the type of approach I'm about to talk about right now. Heck yes I would be happy to be you know as a theoretical thought experiment I would be happy to be reincarnated as any one of these animals in this ecosystem that I'm about to talk about because I believe that we wouldn't be putting the animal in its optimal environment. So if I was that animal or something like that. One other thing I want to mention at the top just a useful piece of background information that is that is helpful to know before we get into the specifics here is how composting works. Because remember composting is how nature becomes more complex and how the regenerative cycle moves forward. So there's there's a couple different ways to compost but the basics with compost is compost is carbon plus nitrogen and carbon is primarily wood or sawdust or wood pulp or wood chips it's primarily like with these substances and then nitrogen is basically like most anything that you would eat. And also manure like poop is a nitrogen source. And then so what. Inexperienced composters do is they need roughly 50 50 nitrogen and and carbon and they get a not very optimal outcome. And if you've ever tried to compost before you started stinking that basically means that you had too much nitrogen and not enough carbon.

[00:20:43] So composting in two minutes the simplest version of understanding composting is composting is carbon plus nitrogen nitrogen is basically stuff you eat or manure and carbon is basically shredded wood. And the important thing to understand is you cannot possibly have too much carbon like 50 50 will work OK. Two to one carbon nitrogen will be OK 30 to 1 carbon and nitrogen will work great. So if you're ever composting and your compost stinking add more carbon. But in general I just wanted to bring that up because the the method of producing food that we're going to be suggesting here the idea is that we naturally want to be producing compost so that the soil is more fertile with each passing year and with each passing crop so that things are getting more diverse there's more life in the ecosystem etc. and so that's we're going to be generating our own nitrogen and we're going to be generating our own carbon to prove to be producing that compost. Now I will say it's a bit easier to generate nitrogen than it is carbon because animals are predisposed to poop. They do it you know daily. So it's a little bit trickier to grow carbon and therefore as I'm as I am implementing this plan that we're discussing I would I would be focusing on ways to basically grow some quick with some quick sources of carbon so that I could include those in the compost. So that's getting a little ahead of ourselves. Let's let's go ahead and set aside composting for right now.

[00:22:22] But I just wanted you to have a general understanding of the way biological systems progress and become richer is more bacteria and fungus and more diversity in biological relationships and that's primarily accomplished through a composting process and also composting in the stomach of an animal is a way to feed compost like cows eating grass and pooping that poop out. There's there's biology going on in the cow's stomach which is like speeding up a composting process like a normal composting process without animals could take. It depends on the composting method. Let's say like one to three months could even take six months or a year depending on the conditions. Composting through an animal is going to go much faster because an animal's biological cycle is set up where it roughly expunging everything that is once a day. OK but let's start at the top let's get into the 10 the 10 steps sequence for how somebody would create a super ecological farm. Step one is to understand that leasing land. Let me rephrase. Step one is to get access to land. OK. And everybody knows this. People think look oh I want to be a farmer but how am I going to come up with you know millions of dollars to get access to thousands of acres of land and I would just say like you're probably not going to get access to millions of dollars to buy thousands of acres of land. At least not at first.

[00:23:53] So the best way to generate the money if you do want to buy it like and not if you do want to buy a large piece of property the best way to do that is to be able to have some money to put a lot of money down and also to be credible in the business of growing food such that like a farm oriented lender Bank assuming you want to take on debt they would be willing to issue a loan because you already have experience running a farm. So number one getting access to land the number one cost for becoming a food producer is typically purchased in the way that the food producers are going to use. And so my number one is to use leasing instead of only. OK. It takes almost no comparatively to buying a piece of land it takes essentially no money to start. We see this sort of land or to lease a tract of land. So just to give you an example we have a I want to say roughly 4,000 acre ranch in Montana. And I do not know what the actual valuation of the land is and it's I don't personally own it but it was my grandfather's ranch and I would say just you know roughly ballpark it is probably worth a couple million dollars but we lease it to a cattle rancher and the cattle ranch has access to about 4,000 acres for I want to say $16,000 a year I think I was told the lease was. So that's just over a thousand dollars a month.

[00:25:22] That is that is only slightly more than it costs to go rent a one bedroom unit in a decent part of a major metropolitan area in the United States to get access to 4,000 acres of land versus if you went to the bank and you were like oh I want to get a loan for $2 million so I can buy this 4,000 acre ranch that well I don't know what they enjoy what the loan payment would be on a $2 million loan but I can guarantee you would be more than a thousand bucks. So what you want to do is you want to control land you want to have consistent access and decision making authority over land. You don't have to own land and that's a common misconception that a lot of people have now. Yes you do want a cooperative relationship with the landowner. Yes you do want a long term contract so that you can do some long term thinking when it relates to what you're doing with the land. But if you think about it there's a lot of landowners who kind of have this you kind of have the following situation and this is very similar with our with our ranch in Montana by the way. It's been in the family for multiple generations or it's somebody who's acquired the land because they believe land ownership is highly valuable but there's not an easy way to monetize it. So like we had this beautiful ranch in Montana but it's a it's really too cold to live up there. It's really too cold to raise a lot of different animals up there so it's not very practical to generate a large amount of income off that land even though as a family we're not really interested in selling the land and a lot of that is related to emotions around my grandfather less than it is around economics and business decision making. So since my family has a has since I have experienced that same situation related to two different ranches that my family owns also one of them is in West Texas. My great my great great grandfather's ranch is in West Texas and we still on that as well.

[00:27:21] And it's similar kind of situation where we don't want to get rid of the ranch but we're not really we're not really using the ranch to its maximal benefit and that's primarily related to the fact that if you have family holdings of land there's so many decision makers. So in the case of these two ranches I just talked about there's three siblings that have two or three fully grown and now you know relatively elderly people who are all siblings who have to like agree on what to do with this land. And there's the economic matter but there's also the emotional matter of the fact that like it was their father's land so they have different opinions about what to do with it. The point is when you inherit land you're likely to get into this kind of quagmire situation where like nobody wants to sell it but nobody can agree what to do with it. It's kind of the simplest way to say it. And so if you show up and you want to lease the property and you want to say look I'm going to turn this property into a money maker for you. You're going to give it to me at a relatively reasonable rate especially compared to buying the land you're going to give me a long term lease and I'm going to make your land better every year. And you know here's my here's my business prospectus Here's how I plan to do that that you're going to be a godsend for that landowner.

[00:28:34] And by the way if you are a landowner that's in one of those type of situations and you're interested in getting started with somebody who would want to lease it and start to regenerative farm or if you want to. There are different structures you could use I mean you could go to the landowner and say like hey you want to be 50 50 business partners you contribute the land and all do all the farming and all the work. There's different ways you can do it so you can structured in different ways. But if you're if you're a landowner and you're interested in getting in touch with somebody who could do that go ahead and contact me via the web site and I'll see what I can do related to that. But so the bottom line number one is identify a piece of land and get access to it by leasing it rather than buying it. And that is going to remove the number one cost associated with farming which is buying land. And then we've already said that in the introduction you basically removed the number to cost which is mechanization. So you don't have to buy a tractor if you do not have to buy any big industrialized equipment under this system. So we have removed the number one and the number two most expensive aspects of growing food. And then the number three most expensive aspect is basically shipping and packaging. So that's kind of outside of the purview of this discussion. But if you were unable if you were if you were able to set up a situation where people were living nearby and they could they could get direct access to the food from the farm rather than to shipping it. That would be that would be optimal but not necessary.

[00:30:01] That's kind of like an turbocharge on top of everything. But number one at least instead of only number two is used dogs to control livestock. This is an area which I really think is going to be very interesting to explore once we get our example property dogs are basically like a super sophisticated tool that any their living beings and I love dogs I'm like such a dog person so I don't mean that in any kind of demeaning way. The dogs are a tool that has been specifically designed by human beings over thousands of years. And so they're incredibly advanced tools and individual breeds have been have been bred for the purposes of being slightly different rules for slightly different situations so I'm I'm I'm thinking about working dog breeds when I'm talking about this. But there are specific breeds which are useful for different things and I forgot to get into why would you want to use dogs to control livestock. Well you're going to need to control the livestock. You're going to need to keep the livestock in a certain area an area of your choosing where you want them to be grazing basically. And there's there's two options on how to do that. You can either use dogs which is what I'm recommending or you can use fencing and if you use permanent fencing you're not really going to be able to do that on rented property unless the permanent fencing already exists and there's probably not even if there is permanent fencing there's probably not enough individual areas to to create the kind of movement in the animals that we're going to want to that we're going to want to talk about here in a second.

[00:31:40] But even if you get on the land or even if you have the ability to put fencing wherever you want it what most people would use or the other option available. The other reasonable option I think that reasonable people could choose is to use electronic fencing which is basically movable electric fencing. The reason why I do not like electronic fencing I have never used it but I've watched many videos on on online about people who have used it. It's ugly. So it just is a pure aesthetic thing. I am once I get this example property I'm going to spend a lot of time on my property with my animals and I don't want like an ugly electric fence that I have to look at all the time. Now as a more practical matter I'm going to suggest moving your animals on a daily basis and that means every single day you would have to be moving the electric fence and that just seems like an unnecessary pain to me. I'm all about producing this super ecological food using the minimum amount of work possible and like having to pick up a fence and move it every day. Is not Is not that in my book. And then also if you have an electric fence it seems largely inevitable that you're going to shock yourself sometimes. And that's not optimal. So I'm going to recommend number two using dogs to control livestock. And there's two main types of dogs you're probably going to want at least one of each of you using the dogs to control livestock. One is a livestock Guardian dog and one is a hurting dog.

[00:33:09] So the reason why it's two different types of dogs is because they have two fundamentally different characteristics. A livestock Guardian dog basically thinks it's a member of the herd. And so like if you have a herd of sheep it basically thinks it's a sheep and then if the sheep attack. If the sheep get attacked it's in a much better position to defend itself in the herd than the sheep are. So let's start gardian dogs are primarily about defending from predators and then the other type of working dog is a hurting dog and a herding dog does not consider itself part of the part of the the the livestock herd considers itself kind of a quasi predator that is not allowed to attack the herd and it's in charge of basically keeping the herd in one place or moving the herd around. So it's the herding dog and basically life replaces the need for fencing and then it's the livestock Guardian dog which basically keeps the herd from being killed by predators. And your general focus on one versus the other is going to be highly dependent of how much how many predators they are and how tense how intense they are which is called Predator pressure how intense the predator pressure is in your area. Like if I was growing in this area where I'm living in right now in metropolitan Atlanta I would say like the biggest predator is like maybe a couple of coyotes. If I was if I was to have the same sort of operation up in a ranch in Montana like then there's full sized adult bears that I would have to worry about.

[00:34:43] And so the net effect of that would be I would need a dog that had the ability to battle a bear which is obviously a much more hardcore gladiator of a dog than a dog Vick could. No need to defend against coyotes which are basically the size of like a medium or medium large dog. So why not why can't you have a dog that is a livestock Verdean dog and a hurting dog. The reason is because they actually have two different and incompatible characteristics and so bred them with each other they would just they lose the awesomeness that each each individual won house. So a livestock Guardian dog has the following characteristics. It has a very high def. drive. There's basically two main tribes and dogs. There's the defense drive and there's the prey drive the livestock guardeen dog has a super high def. drive which means it's not going to run away it's not going to get scared it's going to stand its ground and fight and you need that because it's you're needing it for a situation where you don't want to have your livestock eaten and then herding dog is basically oh I'm sorry. Let's start Veridian dog is high defense and low prey drive and the prey drive is like the desire to chase after and hunt and kill animals. So it's high defense like if it feels like the sheep are being attacked it's going to defend the sheep. But it's not one to attack. You can try to eat them for food. OK.

[00:36:13] And that's why let's start guarding dog let's start guarding dogs can be easily left by themselves because there is a low risk that they're going to attack the animals unless you're in an abnormal circumstance. OK versus hurting dogs herding dogs typically need to work with their owner. And they typically need to be monitored. You would not typically leave herding dogs unsupervised overnight without being you know highly trained with the dogs. And why is that. Because one of the characteristics of a herding dog or hurting dog doesn't have a relatively high def. drive but they're not as intense on the defense drive as the livestock guardian dogs. It has been my experience from owning a blue heeler which is a herding dog that he's all about defending the property in terms of barking and making an intimidating spectacle but when it comes to actually what combat like I mean he has I've never seen him actually bite another being or another animal in combat. But I have seen him kill a lot of young birds and mice and stuff like that. And so what I'm trying to say about herding dogs is they have kind of a medium defensive drive. It's not low but it's not high. But they have a super high praise drive. So my dog Jack has a blue heeler. He will chase any squirrel that he sees. He will chase any bird that he sees. He will chase. We were chasing a raccoon the other day he's chased porcupine or not. Pines What do they call them. Anyway the point is he has a tendency to chase the animals and hunt after them. And it's this hunt sort of drive that you're using to herd other animals it's basically like you're saying use your natural hunting drive. But instead of killing them just keep them in line.

[00:37:57] That's basically what you're saying. So that's the difference between livestock Guardian dog and a herding dog. Let's get into the little one level deeper which is the subcategories so there's two subcategories of let's start guardian dogs which is basically like the last Guardian dog the purpose is to defend the herd from predators. But different dogs have a different approach on how to accomplish that job. And so there's basically two general categories of approaches. The most famous livestock guarding dog is called the great peer means. And what they do is they basically like sleep all day and they stay awake all night. And then what they do all night is they wander around and patrol and they bark all night every night. And so they're basically like they're using their bark to basically say like don't come around here. This area is completely different. So they're they're very they're very good for defensively keeping coyotes from showing up at the front in the first place because the coyotes the way that coyotes orient themselves this is the reason coyotes howl is there basically like taking a census of how many coyotes are around. So when they howl and in the great pure Indians hounds back at them they hear like oh I probably shouldn't go there because there's a huge dog there that wants to attack me. OK. The deal at the great pier me. Pyrenees typically is like you need to put some effort to make sure it's not going to wander off your property because it's a wandering dog. OK.

[00:39:27] Versus the other main kind of livestock Guardian dog is a dog that stays with the herd and basically thinks it's one of the sheep or one of the cows or whatever and the the most commonly used and dog breed for that is called an Anatolian. And then there's like even in a totally It is not intense enough like if it had to fight off with really serious predators like a bear a more intense version of an entity wholly and as a type of dog called the Kangal so Anatolians tangles are basically going to like hanging out with the herd all day. And then if the herd happens to be under attack they're going to get themselves in between the Predator and the herd. And they're they're they're gladiators they're ready to actually conduct combat. And so they will kill predators. So this is the lifetime bargain dogs herding dogs. There's there's three types of herding dogs. And that's really based around what is the specific herding activity you need them to accomplish. So there's three types of general herding work. The first is called driving. Driving is moving our herd forward. So it's like they're in the first pasture and you need to get into the second pasture you use a driving dog to basically push them forward. And I have the blue heeler which is called in Austria is also called an Australian cattle dog and that's a quintessential driving dog. The reason why they call it a healer is because it's driving style is to basically like nip at the heels of the cows nips at the heels of the cows and that's just enough to like freaking out that they'll start walking in the other direction.

[00:41:06] They don't totally freak out but they're intimidated enough that they start moving in the other direction and then another dog that I didn't even realize was a herd and dog but is also another driving dog is a Rottweiler what a Rottweiler does. It's a similar actually take back Rottweilers. It's a different type of dog. So a Blue Heelers is a classic example of a driving dog. The next dog is a mustering dog. So of mustering dog does is there's a herd of animals. And then when your sheep wanders off this dog is going to like go collect that sheep and bring them back to the main herd. And by far the classic mustering dog is the Border Collie. And the reason why the Border Collie was bred to be so intelligent is because it was bred basically in an environment where the farmers and ranchers just let their sheep out to wander for like the entire season and then at the end of the season they had to depend on the dogs to have their own initiative to go and gather up all the animals without the human being present. So that's what the Border Collie is actually the most intelligent of all dogs. And the Border Collie is actually a very useful hurting dog because it can also drive animals forward which it does using a staring motion as opposed to the healer that uses the nipping motion. So the Border Collie is is a steering motion is a lighter way to move animals because it's just it's basically just glaring at them instead of actually like doing a mock attack which is what a Blue Heelers is doing.

[00:42:45] But the flip side of that is a really recalcitrant animal that really just is is less domesticated may overpower a border collie because a Border Collie was designed to work for sheep. So yes the border collie can herd cows but it really wasn't designed to herd cows. That's what the that's what an Australian cattle dog was designed for. And that's when I bring up a Rottweiler before a Rottweiler is useful in that kind of Buster situation. If there's a very powerful animal that is not falling in line because what a what a Rottweiler does is it has more of like a social dominance approach to herding animals so what it does is it looks at a pack of herding animals. It identifies like the most aggressive problem animal. And then it basically just zooms in on that animal and like uses a similar type of motion as a blue heeler of Blue Heelers nipping at the heels of the animal the Rottweiler will nip at the face of the animal. So you might think like oh my gosh the Rottweiler is going to bite my animal's face. No it's like fake bite. It's going to do like an air bite near the animal's face. And the animal is going to say like oh I better fall in line like this. This Rottweilers you know not not not taking any back talk as far as far as the herding. And then the last and most important in terms of replacing a fence is called a border dog. So the classic bordering dog is a German Shepherd German Shepherds were developed in Germany or in Austria or around that area in situations where the animals that were grazing were directly next to very high value agricultural fields. So unlike in the I believe it was the Scottish Highlands where the border collies were primarily developed to run off into the into the you know large fields and go gather the sheep the German Shepherds where they were designed to make animals able to graze immediately next to extremely high high value agriculture that they just could not be allowed to cross into the high value agriculture. And so similarly with the city it's like if you're grazing animals in a city like your cows cannot wander into the street because they're going to die. Well a German Shepherd is specifically designed to be a bordering animal a fence that basically what they do is they place the perimeter of where the fence would be and they just constantly pace it and create like a living fence. So that's what bordering humans. If I was to say like OK you only if you were to say like OK I can only have one or two dogs because I don't have very much livestock which dogs would I get I would probably get two German shepherds because what you need is not so much. It's not very hard to move animals. What's hard is to keep bad animals within their designated area. So I think bordering is by far the most important. I will say with with our demonstration site when we do create it I'm planning on having it be a pretty large demonstration with a pretty large herd. So as a result of that I'm planning on basically having one of each of all the dogs we just talked about at least one of each.

[00:46:08] Because if I had had any animals with like six animals that's able to handle like a hundred to a thousand head of livestock basically. OK. So rule number two or point number two on this plan to create a super ecological farmer way of growing food is you've got your leased land in number two is used dogs to control and move the livestock. And one other thought is it's primarily to replace the fencing because you don't have to be fencing when you can just move the dogs. The dogs can obviously move easily and that's more important in a situation where you would move the animals more frequently which this model of growing food is going into is going to basically depend on moving the animals very frequently the deer herding in I'm sorry the livestock animals are going to need to be moved essentially every day so it's going to be easier to do that with dogs than with fences and also dogs are not. You're not putting any permanent structure onto this farm that you're renting and it doesn't make sense to invest a bunch of money into a farm that you're renting. OK so you use dogs to control livestock. Number three you which I was just talking about is daily move. OK. There's really there's a few different ways you can think about rotating the grazing of your livestock and probably think of a better word than livestock because like human resources it's a little bit of a it's a it's a word it's sort of a capitalist word meant to de-emphasize the fact that these are living beings so these are living beings that you are in charge of somebody is ultimately going to eat.

[00:47:54] And the only word I'm aware of for that is livestock. If there's a better word somebody please make me make me aware of it. But originally there was no kind of rotation of animals and that caused rapid Lanch degeneration somewhat. Most ranchers do now is they use what is called rotational grazing and that's what the rancher and Mike on the arrangement handed to us is they basically have huge sections of land like the the grazing areas also called paddocks might be you know hundreds or thousands of acres and then the livestock doesn't have access to all of them that once you have access to one and then the next and then the next and that and that enables the land to rest in between in between times that it's being praised because of course if it's created constantly It will be degraded very quickly. OK that's called rotational grazing. The problem with rotational grazing I don't want to get into it is too technical of nature but what you basically want to do instead is Mark racing because racing is a lot more consistent with how prey animals act to actually act in nature which is that they form or herd which is like a mob of animals that are really tightly held that are very close together for defense against predators. And so you're partially simulating this by having the dogs there as predators. I had heard previously that the an electric fence is meant to simulate a predator. Well it makes a lot more sense to me to use a professional predator like a dog because in way being a predator.

[00:49:31] But anyway the presence of predators causes causes herding animals to to clump together in a very small space. And so their natural condition is to is to basically be in a herd. But for that herd to move like pretty frequently like at least on a daily basis. OK. So they're naturally collected together at an extremely high density. But they're moving all the time being migratory migratory birds is fundamental to the nature of like a bison or something like that. OK. And what Mom bracing does is you're simulating that. So instead of giving them access to like large sections of land and moving them infrequently which would basically cause them to spread out and to not focus their energies on any one place. Instead what you want to do is focus all of their energy on one place have them eat the plants and poop all over it and then move elsewhere and not come back for a long time so that any sort of like disease specific to that creature would already be gone by the next time you you come to it. So the idea is like let's say we have a hypothetical ranch and it's like 10 different sections in a rotational grazing would be to rotate among those sections maybe one every month or something like that one every quarter day. It depends. There's a lot of different there's a lot of different ways to do rotational grazing but that's basically how we do it versus Monterey's saying let's say the same proper property might be divided into a hundred much smaller sections and then you would move the animals on a daily basis. People who do this absolutely swear by what they're calling a daily move. And why is that.

[00:51:18] That's because these animals are naturally designed to be moving daily.

[00:51:23] So you're just doing what they are intended to do anyway and for some technical reasons that I might get into in the future that actually causes.

[00:51:32] That's much healthier for the land because while the herd is on an individual spot they're basically eating everything that's in that individual's spot versus if they have the opportunity to roam around a huge area with no predators they basically just eat what they consider to be delicious and that disadvantages those plants versus the plants that they don't consider delicious. And so basically the plants you don't want and taking over versus with grazing everything gets a nice crazing and everything is on a pretty even footing. And we're going to accentuate that by using multiple types of animals rather than just one type of inaudible because then you can blend together different dietary preferences across different animals so that because what we want is we want the we want the livestock to basically eat the plants that are there and then to produce a bunch of poop which is then going to create a very nice environment for growing plants. So number three is is a daily move of the livestock which is simulating a herd moving in a natural ecosystem OK. We constantly want to be thinking like how does this animal actually behave in nature when left to their own devices and then how do we simulate that. So how to simulate that here is we're using dogs so that there's predators so that the animals stay close together and then the animals are moved every single day so that they have access to fresh grass and things like that on a daily basis. So number three daily move number four is to use animals instead of a tractor. Also known as an animal tractor.

[00:53:11] We're going to use and we're going to use animals to accomplish the same purpose as a tractor which is. Now remember this is land that has not been worked before so we're going to basically essentially till at one time so that the plants are going to be able to develop a deep root system. Tilling is a kind of like a one time treatment I would say it's it's it's tough on the land but if done in an appropriate circumstance it can be highly productive for land. So this is what I call kind of the prep crew or this is the main herd. When we talk about this growing system the school system is based around growing plants and animals and there's basically one main herd which is the animal tractor and there's another smaller herd. We're going to get to later which I call the means crew. So the animal Traktor the idea is to use the animals for two purposes you're growing the animals for food so that somebody can eat the animals but you're more importantly using the animals to prepare the soil so that you can plant your crops and they're going to do things like they're going to eat all the leaves you don't have to be doing the Monsanto thing and poisoning the weeds because you just have any animal that eats weeds and then turns that into poop and then that poop is used to make the farm more more more fertile. And the general concept is to use something called a leader follower system although I would like to experiment with the possibility of using all of these animal animals in one place as well in sort of a mixed species system.

[00:54:42] But it makes sense to me that you would use this sequence because what you want to do is you want to basically attend to the different levels of the ecosystem from the top to the bottom. So what do I mean by that. I mean you want to start with grazing animals who are basically going to eat the tops of the plants that they're going to eat the plants that are above the ground and then you want to follow that with like kind of a light bill that's going to that's going to start digging through the ground a little bit. Not that deep and it's primarily going to be focused on eating bugs and getting rid of bugs. And then there's going to be the last layer which is the deep still which is just going to absolutely turn over a ton of dirt which is going to arid it and put it in a great position where in the future it will be a lot better at capturing water rather than having runoff. So that's the basic leader follower system is you have a set of grazing animals come through and they graze down the field and then you have a set of basically poultry come through. They're going to eat all the bugs and they're going to start to in the soil in a light way and then you're going to come in with the deep pillars which are typically pigs and they're just going to they're just going to shred the soil basically. So I mentioned some of the animals in passing but let's get real specific on grazing.

[00:55:58] You would probably use cows and sheep because they are there they're the two easiest animals to work with which are focused on the two main types of grazing you can have which is cattle primarily eat grass and then sheep primarily eat forage which is which is like bushes and stuff like that. So if you have cattle and sheep that's going to that's going to pretty much graze whatever's there. You could also include bison and goats if you wanted. It depends on the scale of your operation. Bison basically eat the same thing as cows. There are some slight differences but they're very close and goats basically eat the same thing as sheep. The main difference between goats and sheep is that goats are very difficult to contain whereas sheep are not. Now I I personally believe as a theoretical matter that I have not had a chance to test yet that goats are going to be easy to contain using dogs because of the press because goats still have to respond to predator pressure. Versus the thing that goats are really good at getting out of it's fencing and the system doesn't use fencing. But having never kept a ghost before haven't seen many interviews with people who say goats are like the hardest type of livestock to raise. I would definitely start with cattle and sheep. Assuming you have enough land to work cattle on because cattle do take a fairly large amount of land if you had a smaller amount of land I would maybe start with just sheep although if you had a larger amount of land and you just wanted to start with one animal I would start with cattle. And the reason is because cattle is better able to defend itself than sheep.

[00:57:35] As somebody from Texas if you go driving around you know rural Texas and you look at our herd of cows they do not need a livestock Guardian dog to defend themselves against coyotes versus lambs like yeah they're going to need something to defend them. But personally if I was to start up you know an operation on say 100 acres tomorrow I would start with cows and sheep as good as the grazing component as phase one of my animal tractor. And what they would do is basically on a small piece of land every day they would eat all the plants and turn that into poop. And then they would move on the next day and then the next day would bring in the second crew which is the poultry crew which is primarily chickens could be geese but probably primarily chickens. And what they would do is they would eat all the bugs and then they would use their beaks and their claws to scratch in the soil and to kind of give it a light tilling and by light tilling I mean they give it a very thorough tilling. It's just they don't go super deep with it. OK. So chickens and other poultry. And then I would follow that up with the D till crew which is going to be pigs pigs basically are able to create huge holes which is typically seen as a disadvantage but I think it is my theoretical view which I would very much like to test when we get our example sites that know what pigs are doing is they will take like a flat piece of land and they will create texture on it where it all holds water better.

[00:59:07] But let's say there's a big hole that they leave in one particular place. Well that's going in the water a lot better than the rats and hopefully those will naturally develop into some ponds. Because what I would like to do is is create a situation where there's water all over the property and I think the easiest way to do that is pigs and that would create a more natural non non-Flash surface environment like just a field that's completely level that's not that's not similar to a natural ecosystem. And this probably goes without saying but let me go ahead and say this. The idea of a leader follower system or a molting animal animal tracks or even a single animal animal tractor is. You're going to need movable water and movable shelter because the way that most most farms work is they keep their animals live in the barn in one central area and then they take them out to the field every day whatever field day one worked on. And the disadvantage of that is that there's a ton of maintenance on the barn because the animals are spending half their time pooping in the barn. And so instead of spending a bunch of time doing barn maintenance instead you have like almost like a little mini barn that goes from place to place with the animals with no floor on it. And then yeah they can poop all they want because they're just adding to the diversity of the ecological system that you're creating. So this system does require movable water and portable shelter or water in each of the areas that the plants that the animals are going to be in.

[01:00:37] I would assume it would be easier to do like movable shelter or shelter and movable water in kind of like one structure that was on wheels that could be moved very easily. So number four is a molting animal great of a multi animal or animal tractor. And then if you think about it OK we just ran our animal tractor through a piece of land the cows and the cows and sheep ate all the plants and they turned that into poop. And then the chickens scratched it up and ate the buds and then the pigs gave it a deep till and now it's really ready to plant it may need a little bit of time to compost but that will happen naturally we'll probably add some sawdust and carbon sources that will help the composting process and we probably have some areas of the farm that were specifically devoted to just growing carbon. Probably the fastest way to grow apart and would probably be I've had a lot of good luck with one of those willow trees willow trees growing in water can can grow a lot of carbon very quickly. But number five is to then plant plants and buy plants I mean annual plants in this case. So we've initially worked over the land with our animal tractor and now we're going to initially work over the land kind of like with a plant tractor. In other words we're going to plant plants that grow very quickly. They can develop a very robust root system within one season. So that's going to further break up the land and prepare it for the long term plantings even more.

[01:02:15] And as I just mentioned we're also going to plant fast carbon sources so that we can so that we can encourage this composting process using something called a Chopan drop. So we're going to plant annual plants. We're going to plant things like sunflowers which are going to be very tall and have a big root system things like buckwheat that are going to be tall and have a big root system and whatever we want to eat in terms of like you know and people have gardens and like tomato plants and whatever people generally think of when you think of gardening that's basically thinking of annual crops in your crops or crops that cannot withstand surviving the winter. So again number four we basically prepared the land using an animal tractor. And number five we planted it annually which is basically preparing the land using a plant tractor but in such a way where it's generating some quick food it's generating an initial payoff because remember we haven't we we haven't had any of the animals long enough to eat the animals. This is actually the first food to come out of the system. So number five is the plant annuals in fasc carbon sources. Number six is to harvest the animals start to harvest the annual plants and then to chop and drop. So what does that mean that means like OK let's say we had the animal tractor come through and then we planted a bunch of plants and then within let's say three to four months they were in it was ready to go. It was harvest time so we went through and we ate everything that we wanted to eat and then maybe we took you know two months to really get all the food out.

[01:03:50] But ultimately there's it's going to reach a point where like we've harvested everything we want to harvest out of it and what we want to do is basically we want to either just chop the plants down to the ground or we want to run the animals through there that are going to step on the plants and push them into the ground because that is going to take the remaining plant matter and fold it back into this composting process. So number six is to plant is to harvest the animals and the to do a chop and drop. Number seven is to really plow with the animal tractors so the same set of animals that came in before they're going to come in again. They're going to eat whatever remaining plants are there and they're going to really prepare the soil so now the soil is looking. It has been worked over twice by the animals and one by a set of plants and it is it is very fertile soil. It's soil with high highly rated soil which is attractive and able to retain a lot of water which is also attractive. So you basically plot it twice. Number seven is really plowing it with the animal tractor. The second time. And then number eight is the permanent plantings also known as the perennial plantings are primarily perennial plantings. So the first planting was kind of a quickie planting just to get some quick crops in to get the soil the back. You know the micro refusal phone guy and stuff in the in the soil to be increasing.

[01:05:23] But now you're going to want to plant permanently and I would say that there's two basic approaches that you can use. And it really depends on exactly what you're growing situation is and what your needs are in the specific property. But I would say for number eight the permanent plantings you're going to want to either go with a food forest approach or a Silvo pasture approach. And what a food forest approaches is. And I did a whole podcast episode on what is a food for us so if you want to use the first approach definitely do watch that. But when you're going to do is basically mimic the multiplayer structure of a forest also known as a jungle depending on where you are in the world. The multiplayer nature of the forest to get a very super highly diverse and complex yet resilient ecosystem. Okay primarily using perennials. So that's like a full on forest that you're planting where the majority of it is going to be perennial plans do. Make sure to maintain some kind of pathway through there so that you can get in there so you can harvest what you need versus Silvo pasture is basically like more of like a production farm that was trying to just generate a lot of crops for sale I would probably suggest more of a pasture approach versus the forest approach. Like that's what I would use if I was developing the property as a place where people would want to live because like I think that's more conducive to human beings. If I was just trying to focus it on pure total amount of agricultural production I'd probably use the Silvo pasture approach.

[01:06:58] So it's Silvopasture is is you're you're you're drawing annual plants in the middle or there's really two shapes you could use let's say you're using circular shapes. You would you wouldn't plant your annual plants in the middle and then you would plant your trees or your perennial plants in a circle around the annual plants and then you could keep bringing in the animals from the animal tractor and you would allow them to graze the annual part but not the perennial part. So it's a layer where you can raise plants and animals both in the same location or a lot of people instead of using circle's use in a linear fashion where there's like a row of trees in a road for grazing in a row of trees in a row for grazing in a row for trees in a row for grazing. OK so that's obviously more set up to use like a combine and things like that which I don't I'm not personally supportive of but I do think there is some sense in potentially sometimes if you want to focus on the production of your crops I think that that is the most regenerative way to produce annual crops while still producing another crop in the form of like maybe hardwood or perennial crops. So Silvopasture is is yes having some annual crops that are going to be grazed by the animals but then having perennial crops basically outside on the edges where they can grow being undisturbed by the animals versus the food forced approach is basically like we're not going to bring the animal tractor back through the area has already been prepared and now these are like the long term. Now it's time to grow our garden of Eden type of thing. So that's number eight the permanent plantings.

[01:08:36] Number nine is what I call the maintenance crew and the maintenance crew is really assuming you're using like a food forest approach because if you are using Silvo pasture you wouldn't keep running the animal tractor. The first herd basically you would keep running those animals through through the area. That could be great but this is what I call the maintenance crew. And the difference between the maintenance crew and the animal tractor is the the the the animal tractor is basically the goal of it is to have the animals eat every plant that's there every bug that's there and then to till the soil and to ground grind any remaining material into the soil so that they can compost. So it's a really it's an intense process it's a process designed around remaking land which is not currently agriculturally productive but by the time we've gotten to step nine that piece of land is already or at least that part of the piece of land is already pricked it has produced two different crops and it is already like a very diverse rich regenerative ecological environment. So what we want to do is we want to use much smaller animals want to bring in animals that are going to be a lot lighter on the land and then animals that are not going to intensely hurt the land they're just going to let them do some basic maintenance items like a good examples like let's say you had a bunch of apple trees everywhere you had harvested your apples. But a certain number of apples like fell on the ground and they're rotting.

[01:10:10] Well you can either let them stay there and rot on the ground and like encourage the growth of worms that eat apples which would like not be advantageous in an app in an apple orchard not just going with one crop like an orchard but just using this as an example instead I would want to run the maintenance crew through there and have an animal that ate those apples off the ground turned that into poop and poop right there and that would not encourage these worms that eat apples but it would be regenerating that ecosystem by you know pooping. So her number two the maintenance crew is much smaller animals and they're basically going to they're still going to be rotated through the property but they're going to be rotated forever and in the sense of like that's the maintenance that needs to be done on the property. That's like the equivalent of mowing the grass except there's no way to know. So the maintenance crew I would suggest again we're using much smaller animals for using animals that are going to be much gentler on the land because the land has already been prepared at this point now which is maintaining the land. So same thing in terms of grazing and foraging and bug control but not deeply tilling the soil so we're not going to use. We're not going to use Pace. We're not going to use chickens because those are those are the two animals that are most that are most hard on the soil and we have already we've already taken advantage of that when the time was appropriate. But now we've got we've got a very nice diverse ecosystem we don't want to just destroy it. We want to instead turbocharge what's already going on.

[01:11:48] And the best grazing animal to do that is rabbits. I have had many rabbits in the past and made tray going full sized rabbits and they have a full Farne. But rabbits are absolutely fantastic. They basically like eat everything they can get their hands on. So that's going to eat they're going to basically eat anything that's along the ground and they're going to turn those into small little poop pellets which are I don't know what it is about rabbit. But rabbit poop is like very very encouraging for earthworms. So if you if you have rabbits go through there the earthworm population is going to dramatically increase and they're going to eat a lot of like the grass and stuff along the ground. So you don't have to worry about going underneath your food for us and obviously rabbits are not big enough to like her the apple trees that they're grazing or whatever. But you are going to want some foragers. You're going to want some animals that like eat the weeds so that there's not a big problem and you don't have to constantly go under food for his tweeting like I do I do not want to have to set up a situation where I have to do a lot of personal maintenance. No I want to run animals through there that are going to do the maintenance for me.

[01:12:57] So that's that's one I would possibly include goats I'd possibly include include like so many goats there are some really cute varieties you can get maybe some many goats so that they're basically eating what the rabbits are not willing to eat in terms of like stuff that's you know weeds and stuff like that but not big enough so that they can actually cause damage to the trees. And if you have young trees that would still probably use some fencing to keep the goats away and then we're still going to use poultry to eat the bugs. But we're going to use poultry that's lighter on the land which would merely be turkey or Dock's and I would say it really depends on how much you are worried about noise because docs are going to be quieter than turkeys. Turkeys are going to be able to defend themselves better than dogs so I'm personally planning on using both turkeys and ducks and just kind of experimenting and seeing where we go from there. But the bottom line is like you're going to want something that's going around eating insects and poultry is the best sort of animal to eat insects and you're going one in the animal that's lighter on the ground than chickens. And the best to animals for that are probably turkeys and ducks and they both make a really delightful meat and at least the ducks make a super high quality egg which is much more high quality than duck egg and they're much more difficult to obtain. So number nine is the maintenance crew. The second herd which is the small animals which are there to maintain the existing system rather than to basically plow everything under and start over. Which is the which is the purpose of the animal tracker. And number 10 is to develop land traces which is basically to do more of what's working in so let's talk about what the concept of a land race is a land race.

[01:14:49] If you think about it every place on earth is completely unique ecologically. There are so many factors that come together to create an ecological habitat that really everything every individual place on earth is unique and we have developed general I don't want to say categories but we've we've developed general types of plants and animals so that so that there are distinctive varieties like whom we were talking about the dogs like there are these different breeds of dogs in those exists and those are identifiable but those are still pretty general categories of plants and animals like a breed or a species or even a. What do you call it variety like pink lady is a variety of apple but if you think about it pink ladies in general type Well Pink Ladies apples are bad example because each specific type of apple is a clone of every other one of those examples. Let me think of a better example let's say you wanted to grow sunflowers. OK. And you got this certain type of sunflower which seemed to it was let's say I'm growing it around here which is in Georgia and I got a certain type of sunflower which is supposed to be good for growing in a warm. You know the type of environment that I have around here hot summer type of environment. So I planted a whole bunch of these sunflowers and then asserts some of them did really well and some of them didn't do that well.

[01:16:20] And so what I did was I collected the seeds from the ones that did really well and I planted those again the next year and then the next year I saved the seeds that did well and I didn't say the seeds that didn't do well. And over time what you get is a specific type of sunflower which has been optimized specifically for your circumstances primarily for survivability but it could be for taste and different characteristics that you want to develop. So the idea is and this very same thing happens with animals as well like let's say you have a hundred cows like the cows that are doing the best putting on the most weight and maintaining the most healthy in your environment. Well those cows that you're going to want to breed more than the cows that are just like doing any make and like really not the right thing in any way. Well then you don't want more of those cows you want more of the cows that are driving and then multiply that you know 20 years in the future and then all of a sudden you've got like a specific sub breed of cows which is specifically designed for your land. And so that's called a land race. There's like a species which could be like a plant or an animal. And then there's like a variety underneath that which is linked the type of plant or animal it is. But then there's individuals inside of that type and different individuals are going to thrive in different circumstances and you're going to want to encourage the individuals both plants and animals that thrive in your specific circumstances because then you have like super plants and super animals that are almost specifically designed for your circumstance and of course they are going to do a lot better than a plant that's not specifically designed for your circumstance.

[01:18:02] So over a long period of time like a 10 or 20 year period I expect for our demonstration property to develop its own individual subspecies of plants and animals or maybe some species is the wrong word lambastes is really the technical term for it. But plants and animals that are specifically designed for that area of the world that specific intersection of factors. And that's going to enable a lot more resiliency because again let's compare that to to the typical system that people use today which is plant a whole field of corn using all the same type of Corum using the exact same type of corn that everybody else plants Well that's not diversity that is. That's a highly fragile system that's going to fall apart as soon as the first human or disease that kills you know between corn comes on versus you know this one type of lamb that has been specifically developed to work well and in my specific property and to be specifically disease resistant to the types of diseases that exist in my area. Well when that disease comes through my area I'm not expecting it to take out all my sheep and even if it does take out some of my sheep then the remaining sheep will probably be resistant to that disease and they will be stronger in the future. And by the way if you develop animals which are disease resistant to any disease which is common in your area then you don't necessarily have to.

[01:19:28] In terms of like generating money from a farming operation then you don't necessarily have to sell those animals for food you can so those animals for breeding stock to other farmers who want disease resistant animals so that's why a number tends to develop land races is really the way to produce truly high quality regenerative better year after year agriculture is to develop plants and animals to develop land races which are specific to your circumstances. So that was that was how to create a super ecological farm on the cheap in 10 easy steps. Those 10 easy steps again were to lease the land instead of owning the land so that you can get access to the land for a minimal amount of money. Number two use dogs to control the livestock which means you are not going to have to invest a lot of money in permanent infrastructure which would not make sense on a property that you don't own and it's going to make it easier to move the animals frequently. Number three is the daily move of the animals which is what you're really talking about herd heard one which is going to simulate what it's like for a herd in the wild which is moving daily to new food sources and number four is to use a multi-year animal animal tractor to prepare the way to prepare the land so that it is so that it can start being so it can start along the path of regenerative number five plant. A quick crop of manual's and fasc carbon to enable you to get some food out of the system quickly and to further move the process forward in a very in a very robust fashion. Number six is to harvest that initial crop and to basically chop and drop the remaining plants.

[01:21:15] Number seven is to move the animal tractor back through a second time to really prepare the soil even more deeply because it's already been loosened from the first time but now it's going to become even you know maybe you have two feet of soil that's going to become five feet of soil up to the second time. I don't know I'm just making those numbers up but just because you loosen the soil up somewhat the first time doesn't mean it's not helpful to loosen up the soil even more the second time. So that's number seven replied the animal tractor number eight. And again it's called an animal tractor because it is a it is using animals to replace the function of a tractor it is not an actual tractor. It is a replacement for a tractor that we're calling it an animal tractor. Number eight is to plant the permanent plantings which I'm going to recommend to a full food forest approach although I think in certain circumstances a Silvo pasture approach might be appropriate. Number nine is to bring through the maintenance crew which is the smaller animals which are lighter on the land which you're going to do more of the maintaining of the way of the ones it's already prepared. And then number 10 is to develop land races which is to optimize your plants and animals for your specific circumstances even when other plants and animals are not thriving in your area your plants and animals can thrive and you will have more stability you will have more diversity and then of course diversity in ecological systems creates more stability and that is how you create truly high quality food you create truly high quality food in a well both plants and animals each of which are being put in a position to optimally express itself.

[01:22:54] The chicken is living its maximum chicken-ness. The cow is living its maximum cow-ness. Trees are being put in a situation where they can flourish. Annual crops are put in a position where they can flourish and that is creating relationships together which are much stronger. And just like a field of corn which has to basically be manually maintained by human inputs constantly. Instead we want to create a situation where the land is essentially taking care of itself over time and with each passing year we're putting in less work but getting more yield. Yes it's going to take a fair amount of work in the first few years but over time it's going to get to a situation where we're pretty much just pretty much just harvesting or doing a little bit of planning but there's a lot less work as these systems reach maturity. So I hope that this has been a helpful introduction to how we could grow food in the future feed everyone on super nutritional food not grown with any poisons not grown with any animal torture and some specific action steps for it if you want to get involved in creating that region or a future how you can do that. Please do tell somebody else about the show if you enjoyed it please do subscribe to the podcast. And please do submit any questions about this that you might have. Thank you so much for joining us. We really really deeply value you as as a listener and thank you so much for your time. We look forward to speaking with you next week on the Aspire health and living podcast.